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“In a unique Quantumspa-zone people experience our specially composed sounds, lights, colours, scents, warmth and deep vibrations. The easiest way to activate your self-healing abilities.”

RE-ENERGIZE YOUR CELLS, RECHARGE YOUR LIFE

Quantum Pod is a huge selling point for our property!
Having Quantum Pod absolutely positions our service at a higher level compared to others who don’t have it.

CHARGE UP YOUR CELLS!

 Quantum Pod system – was designed for wide application in both wellness, spa, fitness and at home by persons which do not have the medical education. It is intended to provide the general regulating effect on physiological systems of the human body as well as for healing functional disturbances in a wide range of pathology.

The Quantum Pod is the most sophisticated model within the Wellness range, incorporating a choice of 30 stimulation, relaxation and sedation programs, designed for regeneration or relaxation. “In a unique system people experience our specially composed sounds, lights, colours, scents, warmth and deep vibrations. The easiest way to activate your self-healing abilities.”

Offer something very special to your customers. Use this unique feature to stand out from your competitors and offer a service that will pay off.

Designed to reduce stress, promote relaxation, enhance muscle recovery and more, Quantum Pods offer a unique, multi-sensory experience that can be enjoyed by anyone, anytime.

Quantum Pod– combines the gentle sound waves of a special music with a highly efficient vibration massage system integrated into the lying surface. While the special sounds slow down the mental activity, the vibration massage acts specifically on the energy centers (chakras) of the body.

This innovative sound massage system combines the effects of deep relaxation techniques as well as meditation and mindfulness. Quantum Pod offers a quite extraordinary and special effective relaxation, anti-stress experience and boost energy.

Solutions for All Industries

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KNOWLEDGE BASE

Regular use of the FERTY smart module technology can assist in:

Increasing the natural regenerative power of the body
Strengthening the immune system
Prevention of chronic and degenerative diseases, such as arthritis, osteoporosis and rheumatism
Increasing the metabolism
Reducing the effects of ageing
Regulation of blood pressure
Reduction of stress levels
Improving sleep and relaxation
Components:
Control unit with a choice of 28 programs, operated by a microprocessor
Applicator for hands and legs stimulation
Quantum capsule
LED LIGHTS and headphones for sound therapy

FERTY smart module technology is based on enhanced TENS technology has been in use for the past 70 years. A well-recognized and standard use is to enhance the healing of nonunion fractures. It also has been claimed that this therapy is effective in treating osteoarthritis, migraine headaches, multiple sclerosis, and sleep disorders. Some animal and cell culture studies have been conducted to elucidate the basic mechanism of the TENS therapy effect, such as cell proliferation and cell-surface binding for growth factors.

FERTY is based on the scientific principle that metabolism within cells is influenced by one’s electromagnetic field. Each cell has its own pattern of resonating frequencies necessary to maintain the vitality of the whole organism whether it is a person, plant, or animal.

Everything has its own unique “signature” frequency. A toxin, for example, entering the body, has a signature frequency the body cannot resonate with, thus the toxin interferes with the body’s frequency patterns, creating disharmony, which negatively affects the body’s functions and homeostasis. Body cells communicate with each other via signature frequencies and a person is considered healthy as long as the communication remains unimpaired by disharmonic. FERTY is about restoring harmonic frequencies so one can achieve the desired level of physical, mental, emotional and spiritual health and wellness.

The effects of FERTY on humans have been researched internationally and there is no doubt today, that optimized FERTY systems can be applied for therapeutic purposes.

Research started over 100 years ago and has intensified with space technology in the past 40 years. All scientists involved in this research confirm the following effects:

antiviral
analgesic – natural pain relief
antiphlogistic – reduces inflammation
blood vessel relaxing – helps reduce blood pressure
increasing p02 – increases oxygen pressure level
antineuralgic – reduces nerve pain
sedative – improves deep sleep

UNIQUE METHODOLOGY IN AESTHETIC AND HEALTH TREATMENTS
FERTY ENERGY MODUL is a innovative and highly effective device designed for usage in the centers for wellness, spa and beauty centers. This device combines innovative technology with traditional Chinese medicine which gives amazing and long-term results.

And the entire treatment is completely non-invasive and painless, very soothing and pleasing to the client.

Electrical impulses of very low frequency via probes of treatment pass into the body. This device does not perform muscle stimulation. More info…

BEAUTY AND HEALTH BEGINS IN THE CELL
 

ENERGETIC REJUVENATION

Healing and death begin on the cell membrane so that means when you learn how to heal the cell you will get well. If your cells are unhealthy, then your body is in a state of ‘un-health’ too!
Every living thing on the planet gives and receives energy including the cells in our body! This energy in our body we call the “Bio Field”. Bio Field transmits information to our cells’ own energy fields about what biochemical functions to perform and in what order.
When this energy is blocked, the information is also blocked and our body becomes tired and ceases to function the way it should. Yet medicine today totally ignores the health and strength of the body’s energy fields.
Imamo dva izvora ćelijske energije:
1. Prvi je preko ATP molekula iz šećera glukoze
2. A drugi je preko transmembranskog potencijala
Prvi izvor se odigrava na mitohondrijama u ćelijama.
Tokom procesa (razgradnje jednog molekula glukoze) glikolize i krepsovog ciklusa na mitohondrijama se proizvode ATP molekuli. Za vreme procesa glikolize, bez kiseonika, se proizvodi malo molekula ATP svega 6. Dok se za vreme Krepsovog ciklusa uz pomoć kiseonika proizvodi čak 32.
Otpuštanjem posforne grupe iz ATP molekula, ATP (adenozin tri fosfat) prelazi u ADP (adenozin di fosfat). I tako dobijamo energiju za biohemijske procese.
Drugi izvor
According to Nobel Prize Laureate, Dr. Otto Warburg, cells maintain a voltage across their membrane. Each cell has a positive charge on the outside and a negative charge on the inside. The outside is charged with Sodium ions (Na+), while the inside of the cell is charged with potassium ions (K++).
The two charges are separated by the cell membrane which serves as an insulator. Within the cell are ion pumps which pump ions into and out of the cell through the cell membrane. More potassium ions are pumped into the cell while sodium ions are pumped out of the cell, positively charging the cell. The difference in electrical potential (voltage) across the membrane is referred to as trans-membrane Potential (TMP). This process of charging the cells creates a second type of “cell battery” or energy storage, (ATP is the first).

Cells will power-down due to the aging process, stress, unhealthy diet, and the toxic environment we live in. Dr. Warburg found healthy people had cell voltages of 70-100 mV, people with chronic illnesses had cell voltages between 30-50 mV, whereas cancer patients displayed cell voltages less than 15-20 mV. Diminished cellular voltage has a direct correlation to disease and sickness. Cancer cannot thrive in highly charged cells. This is why we never hear of cancer of the heart, as it is the muscle that has the highest voltage of any organ in the body.

FERTI energy enhances the work of charging the batteries (transforming the mitochondria’s ADP to ATP). It stimulates all the components involved in delivering the oxygen and nutrients to the mitochondria for energy (ATP) production. FERTI enhances the body’s delivery systems including circulation and hydration. It increases oxygen absorption by energizing the cellular pumps, which boost the absorption of vital nutrients, and the expulsion of waste toxins from the metabolic process. The energized cells have an increased charge (TMP), which maximizes the aerobic respiration (with oxygen) of the body for optimum energy production (ATP).
It is notable that just 7 minutes of F.R.T Vibration had a positive effect on the unhealthy blood cells. It is also important to know that consistent use of this technology for an extended period of time is necessary to return cells to a continuous, fully healthy state, with a cell voltage that remains high enough to initiate a natural healing response within the body.
And again, simply mechanically vibrating the cells is not the same as increasing cellular voltage. With F.R.T Vibration, the cells vibrate in response to the frequency stimulation, which increases the electrical potential or voltage of the cell.
The effects on the body during treatment:
1. Ion grid rebalance:
2. Improving blood circulation:
Blood carries essential nutrients and oxygen throughout the body. Improving blood circulation allows the transfer of a number of essential nutrients to the places where they are needed and bring oxygen to the mitochondria in order to improve energy production.
3. Acceleration of metabolism:
An accelerated metabolism uses more calories for energy production and burns more fat.
4. Stimulation of the lymphatic system
The lymphatic system carries water and toxins and it is closely associated with cardiovascular system. On over time it even more slows down and blocks. If we stimulate the lymphatic system, we move the blockades and accelerate elimination of toxins from our body.
5. Dehydration and decomposition of fat:
Excess water that is trapped in the fat cells makes them appear larger than they actually are. The F.R.T removes water from the fat cells and breaks down fatty buildup in the fatty acids that the body can then use for energy.
From a scientific viewpoint, the electrical potential of the cell is a direct indicator of the overall health of the body. When the electrical potential is low, your cells lose their vitality and ability to function properly, which can lead to fatigue, lack of vitality, and decreased immunity. When you look at the live cell blood sample of an unhealthy person under a microscope; the cells appear clumped together and somewhat lifeless – a classic picture of low electrical potential.
6. Focus on Prevention
There are so many chronic disorders, aches and pains, that are currently only managed with a life-time of discomfort, or prescriptions that rob us of our quality of life and subject us to surviving numerous negative side effects. Why not explore another direction of preventative health, wellness and fitness? Our aim is to release the energy blockages, and help correct imbalances at their source, by helping to create a strong healthy body and immune system, so that the body can heal itself. To accomplish this, we must exercise, move lymphatic fluids, and increase circulation and energy in the cells so that they can function more effectively.

MORE INFO…

ENERGETIC REJUVENATION

Healing and death begin on the cell membrane so that means when you learn how to heal the cell you will get well.

If your cells are unhealthy, then your body is in a state of ‘un-health’ too!
I’m sure you remember from biology class that the human body is made up of cells. And that these cells perform thousands of biochemical functions every day.

When it’s all working correctly our bodies can maintain optimal health; but when it’s not, we begin to break down, get sick, feel tired, and look old before our time.

But what controls the biochemistry of our bodies?
Well now we know that the answer is … energy.

Every living thing on the planet gives and receives energy including the cells in your body! This energy forms Fields in your body that we call the Human “Body-Bio Field”.

Your Body-Bio Field transmits information to your cells’ own energy fields about what biochemical functions to perform and in what order.

When this energy is blocked, the information is also blocked and your body becomes tired and ceases to function the way it should. Yet medicine today totally ignores the health and strength of the body’s energy fields.

IWT, has developed a scanning device for your entire energy Body- Bio Field.

Not only will you see and measure the energy distortions in your Body- Bio Field , you will work with a Quantum Wellness Practitioner to take the simple, safe steps to restoring your Body- Bio Field so it can once again communicate correctly from your cells on out.

I know it sounds like something from Star Trek or science fiction – but it’s real.
We want to help you to be:

  • FIT
  • HEALTHY
  • LIVING YOUR PURPOSE
  • MANIFESTING YOUR DREAMS

A life where you wake up enthusiastic about the day, full of energy, and feeling in control of where you’re going and able to fulfill your highest potential.

When your Body- Bio Field is distorted, you feel like you are always behind the ball — not getting done what you want in a day, stuck in stressful situations, tired, and your body getting out of shape or starting to fall apart. Over time, this severe lack of energy may result in a number of debilitating diseases. More info…

STEP 1 COLOR THERAPY
Color affects all living cells and can have a very profound and healing effect on mind and body. It can also affect a particular mood or state of mind. Everything on earth contains color and if the human system lacks a specific color, disease will occur. Also, if disruptions in circadian rhythms are present, sleep disturbances and depression often occur.

STEP 2 QUANTUM NAPPING
Imagine a product that increases alertness, boosts creativity, reduces stress, improves perception, stamina, motor skills, and accuracy, enhances your sex life, helps you make better decisions, keeps you looking younger, aids in weight loss, reduces the risk of heart attack, elevates your mood, and strengthens memory. This miracle drug is, in fact, nothing more than the nap: the right nap at the right time.

STEP 3 MUSIC THERAPY
Music is an integral part of Quantum Pod and has been used for thousands of years as a compliment to the natural healing process, to improve mood and mindset and even restore energy.

Sound is a very important tool for staying healthy. Sound has no boundaries, thus allowing it to penetrate every cell of the body; not only affecting the body but also the psyche. More info…

A SECRET WEAPON FOR CELLULAR HEALING

TAKE YOUR HEALING TO THE NEXT LEVEL
Cellular energy is the gasoline of the cell, and nothing runs or functions without it. As nutrients flow into the cell, they feed the powerhouse called mitochondria, the cellular structures which produce ATP (aka cellular energy). Without adequate production of ATP, cells are unable to detoxify or regenerate properly. What’s more, the lower your ATP, the more inflammation is occurring at the cellular level. Individuals lacking ATP have become an epidemic in America and suffer from symptoms like fatigue, brain fog, digestive problems and hormone conditions. Without raising cellular ATP symptoms will not be impacted by treatments. For more info, read the complete R3 article here

Chemical pollution, toxic ingredients in our food, air, and water, electrical interference via EMF exposure, and even damage from harmful light rays. In our modern world, we’re exposed every day to too many toxins to even name. They interfere with our cells ability to function at their best. What if I told you that there was a tool that you could have in your own home to help counteract some of this damage, one that is offered by nature, but that our current way of living often interferes with us getting inadequate amounts? Let’s focus on red light. More info…

NAP PODS TECHNOLOGY


Imagine a product that increases alertness, boosts creativity, reduces stress, improves perception, stamina, motor skills, and accuracy, enhances your sex life, helps you make better decisions, keeps you looking younger, aids in weight loss, reduces the risk of heart attack, elevates your mood, and strengthens memory. Now imagine that this product is nontoxic, has no dangerous side effects, and, best of all, is absolutely free. This miracle drug is, in fact, nothing more than the nap: the right nap at the right time.

Stress and stress related illnesses are at epidemic proportions globally. However, our reaction to stressors can actually be one of relaxation. It’s all a matter of learning how to generate a healthy response in the face of stress and to learn how to routinely exist in this state. And everyone can learn.
When we experience fear-based emotions associated with stress we tend to shut down or act out in order to reduce our feelings of fear. Doing so disconnects us from our feelings, literally taking us away from our body. The key to feeling relaxed in the face of stress is to learn what it feels like to be fully present and relaxed. 4L.B.D (4 life Bio Design) technology induces a relaxed and present state of being that you can easily feel. The more you feel relaxed, the easier it gets to recreate these feelings. With greater use these relaxed feelings intensify making you more resistant to feeling the effects of stress and making it easier to recreate feelings of relaxation and presence even when you allow stress to get the better of you.
Using music, the technology produces pleasant sound and vibrations, which induces a very deep state of relaxed drowsiness. The synchronized magnetic field induces a much greater state of presence, as a result of its interaction with the human energy system. During your session, you are instructed to fall asleep, which promotes the development of drowsiness, but the intermittent changes in the intensity of the sound and vibration from the music typically keeps you from falling into a deep sleep. As a result of the changing intensity and greater presence you become profoundly relaxed, but over time you remain aware. You learn to appreciate how relaxed and present you can feel, which then allows you to recreate these feelings anytime and with further practice you learn to intensify them.
Stress Reduction:
According to recent American Psychological Association surveys, approximately 75% of Americans feel that their levels of stress are unhealthy. According the AmericanAcademy of Family Physicians, approximately 66% of doctor’s office visits are stress related. Clearly stress is at epidemic proportions in the U.S. and it doesn’t appear to be lessening.
Stressors in our environment, whether they result from illness, financial issues, and relationship problems or simply due to a traffic jam, first impact the human nervous system and then the body. The stress response prepares our body for fight or flight and in our society, with its numerous stressors, often causes us to experience stress on a chronic basis. The antidote is the Relaxation Response (RR). 4L.B.D technology can produce a very potent RR.
The technology consists of amplified layered music played through transducers that generate synchronized sound and vibration as well as a strategically placed dynamic magnetic field affecting the central nervous system and the human energy system, respectively.
Since the days of our early ancestors we have been endowed with a nervous system that has a built-in, hard-wired survival mechanism. With this mechanism we are always scanning our environment, consciously and subconsciously, for potential danger. The survival mechanism is supported primarily by 3 of our senses, sight, hearing, and touch. While you’re in a Energy and Sound session there is no need to worry about your survival because you are safe so it’s okay to turn this mechanism off or nearly so. We accomplish this by systematically turning off or habituating your senses of sight, hearing and touch. Reducing these sensory inputs to your survival mechanism deactivates or markedly reduces it, producing a brain state of inattention, so that you can relax. More info….

 

HEALING AND DEATH BEGIN ON THE CELL MEMBRANE SO THAT MEANS WHEN YOU LEARN HOW TO HEAL THE CELL YOU WILL GET WELL

Modern medicine uses biochemistry as the science of healing, but research is uncovering that Bioenergetics, an exciting, emerging area of 21st century medicine is a more effective, life-sustaining approach that heals all living systems.

Your body is made up of 70-100 trillion cells, and these cells perform thousands of biochemical functions every day. But what controls the biochemistry of your body? Well, we now know that the answer is … Energy and Information.

Every living thing on the planet gives & receives energy including the cells in your body! This energy forms fields in your body we call collectively “Body-Field”.

Your Body-Field transmits information to your cells’ own energy fields about what biochemical functions to perform and in what order – it is the “information-software” that directs your organism’s “energy-hardware”. When this energy is blocked, the information is also blocked or gets distorted, and your body ceases to function the way it should.

We can now accurately read your Body-Field and tune it to engage your body’s self-healing ability so that your body can more easily return to optimum function and health in a natural and safe way. More info…

IF YOUR CELLS ARE UNHEALTHY, THEN YOUR BODY IS IN A STATE OF ‘UN-HEALTH’ TOO!

Did you know that you have 75 Trillion cells in your body?
Did you know that every 11 month your cells renew themselves?
Did you know that every 3 month you make new blood cells?
Did you know that every 2 years your bone cells are completely renewed?
Did you know that every hour your body sheds 1 Billion dead cells?
Did you know that your cells need a 70 mV charge to perform cell turnover?
We are always rebuilding our cells, but with poor nutrition, poor cell function and our constant exposure to multiple sources of radiation this natural process is impaired and we become sick! Many civilization diseases right down to cancer are attributed to poor cell function, meaning when the cell charge drops disease can invade. For example a cancer cell has a charge of 20 mV, which is quite a difference from the required 70 mV for healthy cell turn over. How does the cell charge drop? Because of unhealthy lifestyle habits as well as the primary cause of wireless and other forms of radiation in our environment. This type of radiation is a silent killer as it directly impairs our cell function and we don’t even feel it.

Conventional medicine leaves this very important fact about optimal cell function totally out of the equation and focuses on the symptoms instead.

Quantum Zone’s Recharging & Rejuvenation Modules jointly optimize energy and cell functions, the precursor to human health – it is as simple as that!

Beauty comes as a reward for protecting your cells.

Anyone who is looking to improve their health and well-being would do very well to pay attention to the health of their cells. Our cells might be microscopic and seemingly insignificant, but they are responsible for pretty much everything that happens in the human body. But first let’s explore the mitochondria and antioxidants within the human body.

The cytologists Dr. Robert O. Becker and Dr. Bjorn Nordenstrom, former chairman of the Nobel Prize Committee, found out that almost all acute and chronic diseases may be caused by a decrease in the cell’s membrane voltage. According to their model, a person is just as healthy as his or her cells and their ability to communicate with each other. Thus, the health of the cell can be linked to this simple parameter: the electric cell membrane voltage. If ideally, the cell has a voltage of -70 mV, it has enough energy to live and to communicate with other cells. In the course of disease processes this voltage often decreases to -50 mV. In case of a voltage of -40 mV, pain and inflammation may arise. According to Becker and Nordenstrom, -15 mV is the threshold where the cell can mutate to a tumor cell. More info…

 

WHAT IF YOU COULD FLIP A SWITCH AND RECHARGE THE BATTERIES THAT KEEP YOUR BODY RUNNING?

What if each and every day, you could completely reset and restore depleted energy so that the second half of your day is as energized as the first half?

What if in that same process, you can identify the energetic imbalances caused by stress and toxicity and correct them BEFORE they manifest as illness or disease?

You… Can do this

Cutting edge advances in energy medicine are changing human performance. Over 4000 clinical trials on energy medicine alone have shown that Athletes are stronger, faster, and have markedly improved endurance. Cognitive function has been restored after Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Brain Injury, and PTSD. Aging skin and hair can be rejuvenated.

Over 4000 studies have shown that the precisely measured application of energy helps people Feel, Think, Look, and Perform, Better.

The reduction in chronic inflammation alone will have profound long-term benefits.

Better yet, recharging your body battery can be done free of drugs and adverse side effects. The side effects are in fact, positive.
First, we scan your body to identify energy-based pathologies that precede physical manifestation with a targeted combination of coded, “quantum-ceuticals” and then deliver pulsed stimulation of the biofield, cells, and cellular environment.

We then bathe your entire body with precisely metered energies that reduce inflammation, improve circulation, detoxify the cells, and supercharges the body’s charging systems. By first healing the cells, every tissue, organ, and system in your body is driven to its optimal state.

Our FERTI Whole-body therapy Device gives you the immediate restoration of the depleted energy required to be your best, while it simultaneously initiates long term optimization of every tissue, organ, and system in the body. More info…

SCIENTIFIC FACTS THAT PROVE YOUR BODY IS A BATTERY

Read that title one more time just in case you missed it. It doesn’t say “your body is LIKE a battery,” it says “your body IS a battery.”

That’s quite an idea, isn’t it? But the science emerging about how your body works show it’s more than an idea. Not just a metaphor but how things actually are. Let’s look at how this could be and what it means. More info…

TheTBR System System was developed to help people to break down everyday stress, to achieve perfect regeneration every day and – very importantly – to support the body in clearing energy blockages. Eight recognised forms of therapy, ranging from music and relaxation therapy to notes, tonal and vibration therapy and on to magnetic resonance therapy, micro massage and far infrared heat radiation have been combined in a single wellness system, the TBR System. The action of each individual component can be proved scientifically using recognised diagnostics systems.

Consider the circulatory system. The heart is the pump, which pushes the blood through our arteries, supplying our cells with oxygen and nutrients. Once the blood has delivered the oxygen and nutrients throughout the body, it then removes the undesirable carbon dioxide and waste products via the lungs. Moving that deoxygenated venous blood back to the heart is both critical and challenging, because it partially relies on muscle action and one-way valves to get the blood back. This is the basis for the recommendations of vascular/cardio exercise routines promoted by the MDs.

An even greater challenge is to circulate the lymphatic fluids. Lymphatic vessels parallel veins and arteries throughout your body and are also essential for removing toxins from your blood stream. But unlike the circulatory system, the lymphatic system does not have a pump and relies entirely on one-way valves and muscle contractions to move fluid. This is where FERTY treatment  assists in moving these stagnant fluids out of the body. Like active exercise, FERTY will stimulate the cells; energize muscles, and effectively move blood and lymphatic fluid, so your body can function more efficiently. If any of these fluids stagnate, or don’t flow freely, the toxins and wastes will accumulate in our bodies. This may lead to fatigue, aches and pain, lose of vital energy, etc.

By stimulating the cells and systems that remove toxins from your body, exercising muscles, stimulating organ tissue, releasing stubborn fat, increasing cellular vitality, strengthening bones, and raising energy levels, FERTY will put you on the path to creating a Fit, healthier, energized, better feeling, YOU!

Scientific

Objective measurement method to ascertain energy status – TBR System

The science of acupuncture from Traditional Chinese Medicine is based on energy flows within the meridians. It is both scientifically known and recognised that the individual is made up of functional circuits that communicate with one another. There are 72 meridians, including 12 principal meridians, located on the left and right sides of the body and forming the energy channels of the body.

If no problems are present, energy flows unimpeded through these meridians and thus supplies energy to all the functional circuits of the body; the individual is healthy. If the flow stagnates in one of the energy pathways then symptoms will develop in the long term.

Over the centuries, the Chinese have used subjective methods, such as eye-reading diagnosis or feeling the pulse, to determine the status of the organs, functional circuits and meridians.

In our western cultures, we prefer to use objective measuring methods for diagnosis.

The TBR System meridian and energy status measuring system is a bridge between the intuitive “feeling” of energy and our rational, anatomical philosophy.

Measuring the meridians can be used to create a picture of the energy status of the body painlessly. The TBR  System measures skin resistance at the starting and endpoints of the classical meridians. A computer program is used to calculate the energy status of the body and to illustrate blockages and weak points in diagram form.

By taking a measurement both before and after use, the effect – the way in which TBR System causes vital energy to flow once more – can be demonstrated graphically. This allows the change in your energy status can be ascertained very accurately and your individual requirements can thus be targeted very specifically.

TBR System is a unique combination of Chinese knowledge going back 5,000 years and up-to-the-minute computer technology. A measurement can therefore determine the energy status of your body, and any energy imbalances and interference fields can be detected, together with blockages that may be caused by scar tissue, stress or mental problems. The results of the measurement allow a program to be devised that is adjusted to the individual user and also allow the efficacy to be observed.

The measurement method is non-invasive; the procedure is totally painless and lasts only about 20 minutes.

Meridian diagnostics and energy status measurement – space technology
In 1993 and 1994, Prof. Dr. med. Valery Polyakov orbited the earth non-stop for a total of 438 days in the MIR space station. A meridian diagnosis system was used on this flight to monitor the cosmonaut crews and for his own self-diagnosis and treatment. This preventive measure alone prevented him developing any symptoms of illness. In contrast to previous space flights (the American record at the time was 20 days non-stop in space) Prof. Polyakov returned to Earth fit and with no health problems.

Energy status, energy distribution and any blockages in the body can be visualised using theTBR System meridian diagnostics system and the change after just a single TBR System session can be shown.

TBR System – energy status measurement
TBR System is a computer analysis system for health. In the event of symptoms, the system determines which meridians are disturbed, what has caused this disturbance and what needs to be done to remedy it. It is a unique combination of 5,000-year-old Chinese knowledge based on the energy flows in the meridians with western rational logic and the measuring techniques of modern computer technology and microchips.

This means that your energy status can be ascertained very accurately and therapy can consequently be directed specifically to your needs. In this way, for example, you will discover the best setting and optimum action of the TBR  System.

Technical background of an TBR System Measurement
The energy status of the meridians is determined at the start and end points of the meridians. The measurements are delegable and reproducible. The measuring process is controlled by four microchips. 400 measurements are carried out for each measuring point within a few milliseconds. The computer interprets and processes the measured data, which are then displayed in graph form on the screen. The measurements are pressure-free and taken with an extremely low current within a very short period. The energy output at the acupuncture point measured is a constant 455 billionth of a Joule.

Measurement inaccuracies are filtered out and the computer calculates the meridian value. With a resistance measuring range from 20 kOhm to 60,000 kOhm, it is possible to measure even extremely sick patients. The measurement duration depends on the level of resistance. With a resistance of 1,000 kOhm it is 12 milliseconds, at 20,000 kOhm it is 150 milliseconds. The electrical load on the skin is 455 billionth of a Joule. This means that the cells are not damaged during the measurement as occurs with other procedures. The system has a measurement error of 0.25% (absolute reproducibility according to Prof. F. Popp. Erfahrungsheilkunde, January 2002).

Unlike most other systems, the acupuncture point is not mechanically or electrically stressed. The measuring pin is spring-mounted so that the measuring pressure of 20 grams is always constant and the measurement is totally reproducible. The measuring current of 0.4 microamperes is also very low. Minimal mechanical pressure and a very small current ensure optimum reliability and hence reproducibility of the measurement. Use of a 1.2 volt battery means that “electrosmog” is not perceptible around the apparatus. Transmission of the data from the measuring computer to the computer is undertaken using infrared so that no indirect electrical influence takes place via the computer either. All these factors make the measurements objective and reproducible.

TBR System application
The meridian measurement used in the TBR System has proven its value over many years and involves the following benefits and opportunities:

Establishment of the energy status
Detection of energy imbalances
Finding the causes of chronic afflictions
Observation and evaluation of the efficacy of treatments
Detection of blockages arising from scar tissue, stress, psychological problems, etc., for example
Detection of interference fields
An overall application plan consists of 4 steps:

Removing the causes of physical problems and restoring bodily functions
Bringing energy flow imbalances back into equilibrium
Processing/integrating unintegrated and unprocessed emotions
Accompanying the client into the life situation s/he desires
Since the meridians are all-encompassing and provide us with information about physical and mental disorders, TBR System can serve as a starting point for every treatment. By using the measured results we are far better able to determine the direction of measures to be taken and to test the results afterwards. TBR System measurements in combination with the use of theTBR System can quickly lead to effective holistic treatment.

Proof of efficacy using dark-field microscopy
It is both known and scientifically proven that weakened cell metabolism in the blood vessels results in water being deposited. If the vessels swell up, blood can flow only slowly. This, in turn, causes the blood corpuscles to form clumps which can absorb less oxygen. This negative effect is reinforced by “electrosmog” (electromagnetic radiation), such as is given off by radiation from mobile phones, radio and mobile phone transmitter masts and electrical appliances, by a poor diet, medicines, emotional problems, such as stress and overload, too little exercise and severe pollution of the air, soil and water by a wide variety of toxins. Ultimately, the result is poor supply to organs and tissue.

The current “status” of the blood can be observed under a dark-field microscope. Dark-field microscopy is an optical method of examining objects that are so small as to be well below the level of perception of the human eye and that can therefore not be viewed or can only be viewed to a limited extent without technical assistance.

The vibrations, music, notes, oscillations and pulsed magnetic fields generated according to scientific principles by the TBR  System improve cell metabolism, dilate the capillaries, break up the clumps (what is known as the sludging phenomenon) and thus allow the blood cells to take up and transport more oxygen. The result is that circulation to the whole body improves with higher supplies of oxygen and nutrients. Waste products are carried away.

Proof of efficacy using a thermal imaging camera

The process of using a thermal imaging camera to create pictures is known as thermography. Thermography is an imaging process that visualises the heat radiated by an object or body that is invisible to the human eye (medium infrared). In thermography, temperature distributions over surfaces are recorded and depicted. Thermography is a non-contact measurement procedure.

In the field of medicine, one of the uses of thermal imaging cameras is to detect the sites of local inflammations or infections. A thermal imaging camera can also be used to visualise the increased temperature radiation resulting from increased circulation, such as occurs, for example, after a single use of TBR System

Proof of efficacy using heart-rate variability measurements
Heart-frequency or heart-rate variability (HRV) describes the ability of an organism to change the frequency of its cardiac rhythm. Spontaneous changes in the time between two heartbeats occur even at rest.

A healthy body uses autonomic, physiological regulation pathways to adjust the heart-rate constantly to instantaneous requirements. Physical exertion or mental stress is thus known to lead to an increased heart-rate, which normally decreases again on resting or relaxation. Greater variability in heart-rate indicates a greater ability to adjust to stress. In contrast, under a chronic stress load, both of these are more or less restricted and thus reduced because of the typically high, ongoing tension levels.

A heartbeat in a healthy individual is triggered by an impulse from the sinus node, the central pacemaker of the autonomic excitation system of the heart. This, in turn, is influenced by the higher-ranking vegetative nervous system, the sympathetic nervous system exerting an activating influence, one of the effects of which is to increase heart rate. Physical and mental stresses are accompanied by an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity in parallel to the physical functions controlled by the vagus nerve, such as digestion.

Just a single TBR System session results in a significant increase in heart-rate variability, the capacity to adjust to stress is increased, and the actions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic, and the enteric nervous systems, which, together, form the nervous system and control all the organs, are balanced out.

Life Sound Chaise
The Energy and Meditation Machine!

 

Stress and stress related illnesses are at epidemic proportions globally. However, our reaction to stressors can actually be one of relaxation. It’s all a matter of learning how to generate a healthy response in the face of stress and to learn how to routinely exist in this state. And everyone can learn.
When we experience fear-based emotions associated with stress we tend to shut down or act out in order to reduce our feelings of fear. Doing so disconnects us from our feelings, literally taking us away from our body. The key to feeling relaxed in the face of stress is to learn what it feels like to be fully present and relaxed. 4L.B.D (4 life Bio Design) technology induces a relaxed and present state of being that you can easily feel. The more you feel relaxed, the easier it gets to recreate these feelings. With greater use these relaxed feelings intensify making you more resistant to feeling the effects of stress and making it easier to recreate feelings of relaxation and presence even when you allow stress to get the better of you.
Using music, the technology produces pleasant sound and vibrations, which induces a very deep state of relaxed drowsiness. The synchronized magnetic field induces a much greater state of presence, as a result of its interaction with the human energy system. During your session, you are instructed to fall asleep, which promotes the development of drowsiness, but the intermittent changes in the intensity of the sound and vibration from the music typically keeps you from falling into a deep sleep. As a result of the changing intensity and greater presence you become profoundly relaxed, but over time you remain aware. You learn to appreciate how relaxed and present you can feel, which then allows you to recreate these feelings anytime and with further practice you learn to intensify them.
Stress Reduction:
According to recent American Psychological Association surveys, approximately 75% of Americans feel that their levels of stress are unhealthy. According the AmericanAcademy of Family Physicians, approximately 66% of doctor’s office visits are stress related. Clearly stress is at epidemic proportions in the U.S. and it doesn’t appear to be lessening.
Stressors in our environment, whether they result from illness, financial issues, and relationship problems or simply due to a traffic jam, first impact the human nervous system and then the body. The stress response prepares our body for fight or flight and in our society, with its numerous stressors, often causes us to experience stress on a chronic basis. The antidote is the Relaxation Response (RR). 4L.B.D technology can produce a very potent RR.
The technology consists of amplified layered music played through transducers that generate synchronized sound and vibration as well as a strategically placed dynamic magnetic field affecting the central nervous system and the human energy system, respectively.
Since the days of our early ancestors we have been endowed with a nervous system that has a built-in, hard-wired survival mechanism. With this mechanism we are always scanning our environment, consciously and subconsciously, for potential danger. The survival mechanism is supported primarily by 3 of our senses, sight, hearing, and touch. While you’re in a Energy and Sound session there is no need to worry about your survival because you are safe so it’s okay to turn this mechanism off or nearly so. We accomplish this by systematically turning off or habituating your senses of sight, hearing and touch. Reducing these sensory inputs to your survival mechanism deactivates or markedly reduces it, producing a brain state of inattention, so that you can relax. 
 

Energy blockages: identify energy blockages in the body and energy channels, as well as the strength of the energy produced by various systems and organs. More info…

Human Energy Field

 

Dozens of cultures throughout the ages have believed in the existence of an energy field that surrounds and penetrates the body. The ancient people of India named this energy Prada. The ancient Chinese called it Qi. Jewish and Christian teachings also make reference to this mysterious field. While critics may label these beliefs as ancient mysticism that has no relevance to the natural world, the reality is that there is far more substance to what we call the human energy field than previously thought.

What is the human energy field?

The human energy field (HEF) is often referred to as an aura. The word “aura” has mystic connotations, and it is said to not only contain energetic aspects of the physical body, but also intangible things like our feelings, thoughts, and states of consciousness.

An aura is thought by many to be a paranormal phenomenon, with attempts at proving its existence limited to those with psychic abilities who claim they can see it. But while the human energy field may have its roots in the concept of an aura, there are actually now a number of methods used to measure this mysterious field that are far more credible than subjective readings.

Does the HEF really exist?

Though scientists have always been skeptical of the HEF’s existence, opinions began to change in the scientific community as new instruments came out that were actually capable of measuring this field. One such machine is called the SQUID, which stands for Superconducting Quantum Interference Device. Invented in 1970 by David Cohen of MIT, the SQUID can detect tiny biomagnetic fields associated with the body’s physiological activities. After some improvements, Cohen’s device was able to measure magnetic fields produced by brain activity.

In addition, other 21st century scientific discoveries have found that the body not only has a magnetic field, but also an electric field and emits acoustical energy and low-level light. Some of these discoveries include the following:

  • An experiment conducted by Dr. Richard Dobrin and Dr. John Pierrakos found that there was a measured increase in light when subjects were in a room, and the light even decreased slightly when someone who was depressed or exhausted was in the room.
  • Valerie Hunt found that vibrations from the body create a range of frequencies that are audible and that specific colors correlate with certain frequencies.
  • Conventional medicine has used devices that measure electrical activity like the electrocardiogram (ECG) for a number of years, and electrodermal screenings and galvanic skin response are other scientific methods by which to measure this part of the human energy field.

As you can see from just a few of the multitude of scientific studies, the evidence that the human energy field exists can’t be ignored. But more importantly than just knowing this field exists is knowing that measuring the HEF can reveal key information about an individual that can benefit them greatly in their overall wellness.

The human energy field influences the electrical properties of the skin, and one way to measure this skin response is through an advanced form of electrodermal screening. This is accomplished via the BRS galvanic skin response software and hardware. By measuring GSR and ranking responses to digital signatures in comparison to a baseline, Quantum Zone technology is able to accurately determine a body’s biological coherence to nutritional products and wellness services. Audible energy readings can also be taken with BRS perception reframing software.

 
 

BRS Scanning Modul

BRS Scanning that will revolutionise the speed and accuracy of your return to health. BRS is a highly sensitive technology that gives us greta information about why your are sick and what you need to get better. BRS screening provides a highly detailed analysis of your cellular and biological health.  It is a functional testing tool that will determine imbalances in your body and identify what is causing your health concerns. 

The BRS screening allows us to individually match correct remedies that your body can absorb.  It can tell us if your body is reacting negatively to certain foods you are eating and help identify if you are deficient in particular nutrients.  This is a cutting edge piece of equipment that will help you to achieve a greater sense of health and wellbeing.

How does it work

When you become unwell the wave patterns of your cells change; their frequency becomes unstable or disharmonious.  BRS scans your body to determine if any of your cells or organ systems are out of balance and can identify what is causing this. Some causes include

  • Nutrient deficiency
  • Unresolved infection
  • Toxicity
  • Inflammation
  • Environmental stress
  • Structural imbalances
  • Dehydration
  • Poor diet
  • Drugs &Medications
  • Geopathic stress

If your body becomes in a state of disharmony this will set off a complex cascade of events inside your body and create a disease pattern affecting the way your body functions.  BRS- will detect this and inform us how to correct the problem so you get better. 

What is the process of testing?
The patient sits in a comfortable chair and holds onto a pair of metal rods that read the cellular resistance via your skin.  You sit back and relax while the testing is done. It is completely painless.  

It will give you certainty that we are identifying exactly where your imbalances are exactly what your body needs to correct them, so you can experience a deep sense of wellness.

Research

Allergy –  effective therapy for the treatment of patients suffering from symptoms of allergy/sensitivity disease (2002)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11302781

Gastrointestinal  Pain – bioresonance therapy can markedly improve non-organic gastro-intestinal complaints. (2006)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16582548

Rheumatism – bioresonance therapy activates nonspecific protective mechanisms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (2002)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12511993

Rheumatic disease – therapy with electronically stored nosodes is effective in patients with rheumatic diseases. (2007)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17971670

Sources:

1. “Science Measures the Human Energy Field.” The International Center for Reiki Training. Reiki.org.

2. Alvino, Gloria. “The Human Energy Field in Relation to Science, Consciousness, and Health.” Arun Gowry.

3. Hunt, Valerie V. “The Human Energy Field and Sound Therapy.” ArizonaEnergy.org.

4. Alvino, Gloria. “The Human Energy Field in Relation to Science, Consciousness, and Health.” Arun Gowry.

In 1993 and 1994, Prof. Dr. med. Valery Polyakov orbited the earth non-stop for a total of 438 days in the MIR space station. A meridian diagnosis system was used on this flight to monitor the cosmonaut crews and for his own self-diagnosis and treatment. This preventive measure alone prevented him developing any symptoms of illness. In contrast to previous space flights (the American record at the time was 20 days non-stop in space) Prof. Polyakov returned to Earth fit and with no health problems.

Energy status, energy distribution and any blockages in the body can be visualised using theTBR System meridian diagnostics system and the change after just a single TBR System session can be shown.

TBR System – energy status measurement

TBR System is a computer analysis system for health. In the event of symptoms, the system determines which meridians are disturbed, what has caused this disturbance and what needs to be done to remedy it. It is a unique combination of 5,000-year-old Chinese knowledge based on the energy flows in the meridians with western rational logic and the measuring techniques of modern computer technology and microchips.

This means that your energy status can be ascertained very accurately and therapy can consequently be directed specifically to your needs. In this way, for example, you will discover the best setting and optimum action of the TBR  System.

The energy status of the meridians is determined at the start and end points of the meridians. The measurements are delegable and reproducible. The measuring process is controlled by four microchips. 400 measurements are carried out for each measuring point within a few milliseconds. The computer interprets and processes the measured data, which are then displayed in graph form on the screen. The measurements are pressure-free and taken with an extremely low current within a very short period. The energy output at the acupuncture point measured is a constant 455 billionth of a Joule.

Measurement inaccuracies are filtered out and the computer calculates the meridian value. With a resistance measuring range from 20 kOhm to 60,000 kOhm, it is possible to measure even extremely sick patients. The measurement duration depends on the level of resistance. With a resistance of 1,000 kOhm it is 12 milliseconds, at 20,000 kOhm it is 150 milliseconds. The electrical load on the skin is 455 billionth of a Joule. This means that the cells are not damaged during the measurement as occurs with other procedures. The system has a measurement error of 0.25% (absolute reproducibility according to Prof. F. Popp. Erfahrungsheilkunde, January 2002).

Unlike most other systems, the acupuncture point is not mechanically or electrically stressed. The measuring pin is spring-mounted so that the measuring pressure of 20 grams is always constant and the measurement is totally reproducible. The measuring current of 0.4 microamperes is also very low. Minimal mechanical pressure and a very small current ensure optimum reliability and hence reproducibility of the measurement. Use of a 1.2 volt battery means that “electrosmog” is not perceptible around the apparatus. Transmission of the data from the measuring computer to the computer is undertaken using infrared so that no indirect electrical influence takes place via the computer either. All these factors make the measurements objective and reproducible.

The meridian measurement used in the TBR System has proven its value over many years and involves the following benefits and opportunities:

  • Establishment of the energy status
  • Detection of energy imbalances
  • Finding the causes of chronic afflictions
  • Observation and evaluation of the efficacy of treatments
  • Detection of blockages arising from scar tissue, stress, psychological problems, etc., for example
  • Detection of interference fields

An overall application plan consists of 4 steps:

  1. Removing the causes of physical problems and restoring bodily functions
  2. Bringing energy flow imbalances back into equilibrium
  3. Processing/integrating unintegrated and unprocessed emotions
  4. Accompanying the client into the life situation s/he desires

Since the meridians are all-encompassing and provide us with information about physical and mental disorders, TBR System can serve as a starting point for every treatment. By using the measured results we are far better able to determine the direction of measures to be taken and to test the results afterwards. TBR System measurements in combination with the use of theTBR System can quickly lead to effective holistic treatment.

The meridian measurement used in the TBR System has proven its value over many years and involves the following benefits and opportunities:

  • Establishment of the energy status
  • Detection of energy imbalances
  • Finding the causes of chronic afflictions
  • Observation and evaluation of the efficacy of treatments
  • Detection of blockages arising from scar tissue, stress, psychological problems, etc., for example
  • Detection of interference fields

An overall application plan consists of 4 steps:

  1. Removing the causes of physical problems and restoring bodily functions
  2. Bringing energy flow imbalances back into equilibrium
  3. Processing/integrating unintegrated and unprocessed emotions
  4. Accompanying the client into the life situation s/he desires

Since the meridians are all-encompassing and provide us with information about physical and mental disorders, TBR System can serve as a starting point for every treatment. By using the measured results we are far better able to determine the direction of measures to be taken and to test the results afterwards. TBR System measurements in combination with the use of theTBR System can quickly lead to effective holistic treatment.

Heart-frequency or heart-rate variability (HRV) describes the ability of an organism to change the frequency of its cardiac rhythm. Spontaneous changes in the time between two heartbeats occur even at rest.

A healthy body uses autonomic, physiological regulation pathways to adjust the heart-rate constantly to instantaneous requirements. Physical exertion or mental stress is thus known to lead to an increased heart-rate, which normally decreases again on resting or relaxation. Greater variability in heart-rate indicates a greater ability to adjust to stress. In contrast, under a chronic stress load, both of these are more or less restricted and thus reduced because of the typically high, ongoing tension levels.

A heartbeat in a healthy individual is triggered by an impulse from the sinus node, the central pacemaker of the autonomic excitation system of the heart. This, in turn, is influenced by the higher-ranking vegetative nervous system, the sympathetic nervous system exerting an activating influence, one of the effects of which is to increase heart rate. Physical and mental stresses are accompanied by an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity in parallel to the physical functions controlled by the vagus nerve, such as digestion.

Just a single TBR System session results in a significant increase in heart-rate variability, the capacity to adjust to stress is increased, and the actions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic, and the enteric nervous systems, which, together, form the nervous system and control all the organs, are balanced out.

 

The Energy and Meditation Machine!

Stress and stress related illnesses are at epidemic proportions globally. However, our reaction to stressors can actually be one of relaxation. It’s all a matter of learning how to generate a healthy response in the face of stress and to learn how to routinely exist in this state. And everyone can learn.
When we experience fear-based emotions associated with stress we tend to shut down or act out in order to reduce our feelings of fear. Doing so disconnects us from our feelings, literally taking us away from our body. The key to feeling relaxed in the face of stress is to learn what it feels like to be fully present and relaxed. 4L.B.D (4 life Bio Design) technology induces a relaxed and present state of being that you can easily feel. The more you feel relaxed, the easier it gets to recreate these feelings. With greater use these relaxed feelings intensify making you more resistant to feeling the effects of stress and making it easier to recreate feelings of relaxation and presence even when you allow stress to get the better of you.
Using music, the technology produces pleasant sound and vibrations, which induces a very deep state of relaxed drowsiness. The synchronized magnetic field induces a much greater state of presence, as a result of its interaction with the human energy system. During your session, you are instructed to fall asleep, which promotes the development of drowsiness, but the intermittent changes in the intensity of the sound and vibration from the music typically keeps you from falling into a deep sleep. As a result of the changing intensity and greater presence you become profoundly relaxed, but over time you remain aware. You learn to appreciate how relaxed and present you can feel, which then allows you to recreate these feelings anytime and with further practice you learn to intensify them.
Stress Reduction:
According to recent American Psychological Association surveys, approximately 75% of Americans feel that their levels of stress are unhealthy. According the AmericanAcademy of Family Physicians, approximately 66% of doctor’s office visits are stress related. Clearly stress is at epidemic proportions in the U.S. and it doesn’t appear to be lessening.
Stressors in our environment, whether they result from illness, financial issues, and relationship problems or simply due to a traffic jam, first impact the human nervous system and then the body. The stress response prepares our body for fight or flight and in our society, with its numerous stressors, often causes us to experience stress on a chronic basis. The antidote is the Relaxation Response (RR). 4L.B.D technology can produce a very potent RR.
The technology consists of amplified layered music played through transducers that generate synchronized sound and vibration as well as a strategically placed dynamic magnetic field affecting the central nervous system and the human energy system, respectively.
Since the days of our early ancestors we have been endowed with a nervous system that has a built-in, hard-wired survival mechanism. With this mechanism we are always scanning our environment, consciously and subconsciously, for potential danger. The survival mechanism is supported primarily by 3 of our senses, sight, hearing, and touch. While you’re in a Energy and Sound session there is no need to worry about your survival because you are safe so it’s okay to turn this mechanism off or nearly so. We accomplish this by systematically turning off or habituating your senses of sight, hearing and touch. Reducing these sensory inputs to your survival mechanism deactivates or markedly reduces it, producing a brain state of inattention, so that you can relax. More info….
Science Behind Quantum Zone
The process of FRT Therapy utilized by the Quantum Zone, is a patented process based on years of scientific research and proven studies.

Science Behind F.R.T Technologies
The New Science of Information as Medicine

WHY IS WORKOUT RECOVERY AS IMPORTANT AS THE WORKOUT ITSELF?
When thinking about how to boost your exercise results, what inevitably comes to mind first, is to exercise more. Workout recovery doesn’t seem to be the most intuitive method for getting better results.

Most people would think about hitting the gym an extra day in the week or adding an extra 20 minutes to their workout. Another go-to method to boost the results from your exercise is to consider your diet and try to eat better. This could mean anything from adding more greens to your diet to stacking up on supplements to give your body the nutrients it needs.

One thing that rarely comes across as essential to an efficient workout though, is not working out more, but resting more. Those who are focused on workout results can sometimes underestimate the power of a good rest, seeing it as cutting slack and wasting time that could be used to build muscle strength.

They would be very wrong. Resting time is actually the time when your body does all the muscle building. Working out is just the preparation phase for it.

Let’s examine this a bit more thoroughly and look into the mechanism of workouts.

What Happens During a Workout?

It’s not just your muscles that do the hard work when you exercise. Your heart, lymphatic system, hormones, brain, and entire body do their part to endure the workout. For now, let’s focus on your muscles and your heart.

What Happens to Your Muscles During Workout?

When you exercise your muscles, you apply force to them that they have not experienced before and you are disrupting their “status quo.” As a result, your muscles try to respond to the pressure and they tear up a little bit.

When this happens, your muscles signal this to your body and it sends special types of cells – muscle stem cells. They are there to connect the broken fibers and fuse them together. By fusing them together, they make them thicker and stronger – in other words, this makes your muscles grow.

At their core, muscle fibers are protein strands. When they break, some of that protein ends up in your system and needs to be flushed out through your kidneys. To have enough material, you need to have enough protein to form new fibers. You also need good cell proliferation, and you need the time to allow these processes to play out.

In other words, your muscles will grow only if you hit that sweet spot between breaking down the muscle tissue and synthesizing it with the new one quickly and efficiently enough. Even if you choose a workout with fast results, your body will have to go through the same process.

What Happens to Your Heart During a Workout?

When you work out, your body reaches for an energy fuel so it can support the additional nourishment needed by the working muscles. It blazes through the glucose and ATP (adenosine triphosphate) deposits quickly and it signals to the heart to pump more and faster and deliver the necessary oxygen. This oxygen is needed to create more energy.

Your heart then increases its rate, starts pumping more oxygen and the muscles start helping the blood flow by squeezing the veins and other blood vessels, feeding more blood to the heart.

When you are out of shape, it takes a long time to get your heart back to its normal heart after exercise. The fitter you get, the recovery time gets shorter.

What Happens During Post Workout Recovery?

Obviously, a lot of stuff happens during the exercise. In most cases, you are aware of those processes. Your muscles hurt, your heart rate jumps up, you sweat, feel the adrenaline, and much more. Since you are actively aware of these reactions in your bodies, you tend to think that that’s when everything happens.

The resting phase doesn’t seem that eventful. More precisely, the processes occurring during this phase are not as evident. They do happen and they are arguably even more important than what happens during the exercise itself. Here’s what starts to happen once you stop exercising.

Muscles in the Post Workout Recovery Phase

When your body realizes your muscles are under pressure and that the tissue is breaking down, it will try to regulate this process by releasing lactate into your system. The idea behind this is to help with the production of energy, but also to stop your muscles from overworking themselves. This lactate is what causes that post-workout soreness.

So, in the post workout and recovery phase, your muscles are trying to get rid of the serum lactate and at the same time, they are attempting to bond better and stronger fibers. For that, they are “asking for” more protein. During this recovery period, if you don’t give your muscles enough protein and enough rest, you will actually reverse the process of muscle building and turn it into a destructive process.

Your Heart in the Post Workout Recovery Phase

Depending on the type of workout, among other effects, your heart and circulatory system cause your blood pressure to drop due to central or peripheral vasodilation. In other words, your blood vessels relax, dilate, and make more space for the blood, so the pressure drops.

This gives your heart the time it needs to rest. This also means that your blood flow has increased, but with less effort from your heart.

While the direct resting state for your heart is just a couple of minutes, it also has a prolonged recovery period. During this period, it is more vulnerable than it usually is. Forcing it into prolonged periods of this state would not have good effects on your cardiovascular health.

On the contrary. Not allowing your heart to rest means that it will not be able to function properly and that means that you will be risking much more than just faster muscle growth. Rest is crucial for your heart. Just look at the way sleep deprivation can be devastating to its function.

How to Achieve that High-Quality Post-Exercise Rest?

Everybody is eager to get back to running after their fitness goals and resting is not high on their priority list. This is about to change if you want to enjoy a real workout with fast results and avoid health issues that would set you back even further. Here’s what you can do to speed up your recovery:

Good sleep to restore your energy and balance your hormones
A massage to get that lymphatic system running and repairing your body
Hydrate to replenish your electrolytes and heal your muscle fibers
Get your magnesium to reduce serum lactate in your muscles
Shock your body with hot and cold showers
Get your QUANTUM ZONE therapy

FERTI therapy will have some amazing effects on your workout recovery. On its own, FERTI helps your body produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules which act as the main energy fuel for your body. Energizing your body means restoring it and allowing it to thrive.

That’s not all. Besides having this amazing effect on your body, FERTI therapy also boosts the effects of all those other recovery mechanisms listed above. It helps improve sleep quality, boosts the lymphatic system, improves magnesium absorption, and much more.

You can enjoy FERTI therapy anytime and anywhere when you have your own portable FERTI therapy device.

The human body is made up of trillions of “building blocks” called cells, each of which is fully able to perform all the processes that define life – respiration, energy production, movement, digestion, elimination, reproduction, etc. Just as the foundation of health is only as strong as its building blocks, we are only as healthy (or unhealthy) as our cells!

Cells are like miniature bodies in that they need to take in nutrients and eliminate wastes in order to stay healthy. Luckily, each cell is surrounded by a membrane which acts as a vigilant gatekeeper: Only those nutrients needed by the cell at a given moment are allowed to enter, and only waste material and metabolic products are allowed to leave. Maintaining this selective, discretionary power is crucial to cellular health and vitality. Cells that cannot properly assimilate nutrients or eliminate wastes could be respectively described as “starved” or “constipated”! When such conditions exist, cells may become toxic and “sluggish” instead of healthy and vital. More info…

NOBELFÖRSAMLINGEN KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET
THE NOBEL ASSEMBLY AT THE KAROLINSKA INSTITUTE

https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1991/press-release/

The Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute has today decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1991 jointly to

Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann

for their discoveries concerning “the function of single ion channels in cells”.

Summary

Each living cell is surrounded by a membrane which separates the world within the cell from its exterior. In this membrane there are channels, through which the cell communicates with its surroundings. These channels consist of single molecules or complexes of molecules and have the ability to allow passage of charged atoms, that is ions. The regulation of ion channels influences the life of the cell and its functions under normal and pathological conditions. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1991 is awarded for the discoveries of the function of ion channels. The two German cell physiologists Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann have together developed a technique that allows the registration of the incredibly small electrical currents (amounting to a picoampere – 10-12A) that passes through a single ion channel. The technique is unique in that it records how a single channel molecule alters its shape and in that way controls the flow of current within a time frame of a few millionths of a second.

Neher and Sakmann conclusively established with their technique that ion channels do exist and how they function. They have demonstrated what happens during the opening or closure of an ion channel with a diameter corresponding to that of a single sodium or chloride ion. Several ion channels are regulated by a receptor localized to one part of the channel molecule which upon activation alters its shape. Neher and Sakmann have shown which parts of the molecule that constitute the “sensor” and the interior wall of the channel. They also showed how the channel regulates the passage of positively or negatively charged ions. This new knowledge and this new analytical tool has during the past ten years revolutionized modern biology, facilitated research, and contributed to the understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying several diseases, including diabetes and cystic fibrosis.

What Happens Inside the Cell?

Inside the cell membrane there is a well-defined environment, in which many complex biochemical processes take place. The interior of the cell differs in important respects from its outside. For example the contents of positive sodium and potassium ions and negatively charged chloride ions are quite different. This leads to a difference in electrical potential over the cell membrane, amounting to 0.03 to 0.1 volts. This is usually referred to as the membrane potential.

The cell uses the membrane potential in several ways. By rapidly opening channels for sodium ions the membrane potential is altered radically within a thousandth of a second. Cells in the nervous system communicate with each other by means of such electrical signals of around a tenth of a volt that rapidly travel along the nerve processes. When they reach the point of contact between two cells – the synapse – they induce the release of a transmitter substance. This substance affects receptors on the target cell, often by opening ion channels. The membrane potential is hereby altered so that the cell is stimulated or inhibited. The nervous system consists of a series of networks each comprised of nerve cells connected by synapses with different functions. New memory traces in the brain are for example created by altering the number of available ion channels in the synapses of a given network.

All cells function in a similar way. In fact, life itself begins with a change in membrane potential. As the sperm merges with the egg cell at the instant of fertilization ion channels are activated. The resultant change in membrane potential prevents the access of other sperm cells. All cells – for instance nerve cells, gland cells, and blood cells – have a characteristic set of ion channels that enable them to carry out their specific functions. The ion channels consist of single molecules or complexes of molecules, that forms the wall of the channel – or pore – that traverses the cell membrane and connects the exterior to the interior of the cell (Figure 1B and 1D). The diameter of the pore is so small that it corresponds to that of a single ion (0.5-0.6 millionths of a millimetre). An immediate change in the shape of the molecule leads to either an opening or a closure of the ion channel. This can occur upon activation of the receptor part of the molecule (Figure 1D) by a specific signal molecule. Alternatively a specific part of the molecule that senses changes in membrane potential can open or close the ion channel.

 Figure 1.

Figure 1. Registration of the flow of current through single ion channels using the recording technique of Neher and Sakmann. A schematically shows how a glass micropipette is brought in contact with the cell, and B, using a higher magnification, a part of the cell membrane, with ion channels, in close contact with the tip of the pipette. The interior of the pipette is connected to an electronic amplifier. C shows a channel in greater magnification with its receptor facing the exterior of the cell and its ion filter. D shows the current passing through the ion channel as it opens.

Neher and Sakmann Record the Electric Current Flowing Through a Single Ion Channel

It has long been known that there is a rapid ion exchange over the cell membrane, but Neher and Sakmann were the first to show that specific ion channels actually exist. To elucidate how an ion channel operates it is necessary to be able to record how the channel opens and closes. This appeared elusive since the ionic current through a single ion channel is extraordinarily small. In addition, the small ion channel molecules are embedded in the cell membrane. Neher and Sakmann succeeded in solving these difficulties. They developed a thin glass micropipette (a thousandths of a millimeter in diameter) as a recording electrode. When it is brought in contact with the cell membrane, it will form a tight seal with the periphery of the pipette orifice (Figure 1A, B). As a consequence the exchange of ions between the inside of the pipette and the outside can only occur through the ion channel in the membrane fragment (Figure 1B). When a single ion channel opens, ions will move through the channel as an electric current, since they are charged. Through a refinement of the electronic equipment and the experimental conditions they succeeded in measuring this “microscopical” current by laborious methodological developments during the seventies (Figure 1C).

How Does an Ion Channel Operate?

Ion channels are of different types. Some only permit the flow of positively charged sodium, potassium or calcium ions, others only negatively charged chloride ions. Neher and Sakmann discovered how this specificity is accomplished. One reason is the diameter of the ion channel, which is adapted to the diameter of a particular ion. In one class of ion channels, there are also two rings of positively or negatively charged amino acids. They form an ionic filter (see Figure 1D), which only permits ions with an opposite charge to pass through the filter. In particular Sakmann through a creative interaction with different molecular biologists elucidated how the different parts of the ion channel molecule(s) operate. Neher and Sakmann’s scientific achievements have radically changed our views on the function of the cell and the contents of text books of cell biology. Their methods are now used by thousands of scientists all over the world.

The Study of Secretory Processes

Nerve cells, as well as hormone-producing cells and cells engaged in the host defence (like mast cells) secrete different agents. They are stored in vesicles enclosed by a membrane. When the cell is stimulated the vesicles move to the cell surface. The cell and vesicle membranes fuse and the agent is liberated. The mast cell secretes histamine and other agents that give rise to local inflammatory reactions. The cells of the adrenal medulla liberate the stress hormone adrenaline, and the beta cells in the pancreas insulin. Neher elucidated the secretory processes in these cell types through the development of a new technique which records the fusion of the vesicle(s) with the cell membrane. Neher realized that the electric properties of a cell would change if its surface area increased making it possible to record the actual secretory process. Through further developments of their sophisticated equipment the resolution finally permitted recording of each little vesicle fusing with the cell membrane.

Regulation of Ion Channel Function

Neher and Sakmann also used the electrode pipette to inject different agents into the cell, and they could thereby investigate the different steps in the secretory process within the cell itself (see above). In this way a number of cellular secretory mechanisms have been clarified such as the role of cyclic AMP (see Nobel Prize to Sutherland 1971) or calcium ions. For instance, we now have a better understanding of how the hormone levels in the blood are maintained at a certain level.

Also the basal mechanisms underlying the secretion of insulin have been identified. The level of blood glucose controls the level of glucose within the insulin-forming cell, which in turn regulates the level of the energy rich substance ATP. ATP acts directly on a particular type of ion channel which controls the electric membrane potential of the cell. The change of membrane potential then indirectly influences other ion channels, which permit calcium ions to pass into the cell. The calcium ions subsequently trigger the insulin secretion. In diabetes the insulin secretion is out of order. Certain drugs commonly used to stimulate insulin secretion in diabetes act directly on the ATP-controlled ion channels.

Many other diseases depend entirely, or partially, on a defect regulation of ion channels, and a number of drugs act directly on ion channels. Many pathological mechanisms have been clarified during the eighties through ion channel studies, for instance cystic fibrosis (cloride ion channels), epilepsy (sodium and potassium ion channels), several cardio-vascular diseases (calcium ion channels), and neuro-muscular disorders like Lambert-Eatons disease (calcium ion channels). With the help of the technique of Neher and Sakmann it is now possible to tailormake drugs, to achieve an optimal effect on particular ion channels of importance in a given disease. Drugs against anxiety act for instance on certain inhibitory ionic channels in the brain. Alcohol, nicotine and other poisons act on yet other sets of ion channels.

In summary, Neher and Sakmann’s contributions have meant a revolution for the field of cell biology, for the understanding of different disease mechanisms, and opened a way to develop new and more specific drugs.

References

Alberts et al.: The Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland Press, 1990, 2nd edition, pp. 156, 312-326, 1065-1084.

Grillner, S. I: N. Calder (ed.). Scientific Europe. Foundation Scientific Europe, 1990.

Grillner, S. & Hökfelt, T.: Svindlande snabb utveckling präglar neurovetenskapen. Läkartidningen 1990, 87, 2777-2786.

Rorsman, P. & Fredholm, B.B.: Jonkanaler – molekylär bakgrund till nervtransmission. Läkartidningen 1991, 88, 2868-2877.

originalan link…

ELECTRICAL ARCHITECTURE OF THE HUMAN BODY

Remarkable insight into the electrical architecture and power supply of the human body. After watching the talk I realized that the very simple reason we sleep is in order to recharge our batteries. Cells that we are made of are electrical capacitors and it takes time to literally fill these capacitors once they are discharged. Scientific American just had a big article speculating why we sleep and not a word about electrical laws that govern how power is generated and released instead again going into the metaphysical domain.

Chronic disease only occurs when you lose the ability to make new cells that work.

Emotions are stored in the body as magnetic fields.

Every circle of DNA is golden mean. What that means is that the diameters is 1.618 times the height and so forth, and any place in the universe where there is something that’s golden mean or in the shape of platonic solid it will cause implosion of scalar energy. Because our DNA is golden mean the scalar implode into it and gives it its charge so that it has the energy to do its job.

The body is an electronic device which has multiple battery packs and the chronic disease occurs when those battery packs won’t hold a charge, and that getting well involves you identifying which battery packs are failing you, identifying the reason that they’re failing you and fixing that.

As we figure out which circuit breakers are out, we go fix it, turn you back on and let your body heal itself which it does very well if it has the voltage, the nutrients and deal with the toxins.


Healing is Voltage: The Handbook
Healing is Voltage: Acupuncture Muscle Batteries: An Atlas


I want to thank the organizers of this conference for inviting me. It’s a little bit unusual, I think, to have an eye surgeon speaking to physicists, but nevertheless, I’m honored that you would allow me to come and share some thoughts with you about the role of voltage in the body.

So what our emotions? People talk about having them, but most people don’t have a good definition of what they really are and how they work. In addition, in over 50 years I’ve been in medicine, people have talked sort of in passing about the mind-body connection, but I found it was difficult to getting by it explained to me what that meant. How does that really work? Well they say: “Well if you have emotions, they make you get sick.” Okay, how’s that work? And I found it difficult to find any solution or answer to that question.

The reality is that none of us can get through life without having emotional events. We have losses, loved ones die or disappoint us, our dreams go unfulfilled, we go bankrupt, we have car wrecks, we suffer injuries, all sorts of things happen, and then, of course, we now have this big epidemic in our country, of soldiers returning from war and committing suicide.

This business about post-traumatic stress syndrome, is becoming a major issue for us and nobody really knows how to handle it. And here’s a list of all of the various things that can happen with us but we find that more and more people that aren’t soldiers are having post-traumatic stress syndrome as well, so we need to get a handle on how to deal with that.

  Signs & Symptoms: PTSD
Adapted from DSM-IV-TR (2009) p.468

 

    • Efforts to avoid thoughts
    • Avoid activities
    • Poor memory
    • Anhedonia
    • Feeling detached
    • Feeling ‘flat’
    • Sense of a foreshortened future
    • Flash-backs
    • Difficulty with sleep
    • Irritability
    • Outbursts of anger
    • Hypervigilance
    • Difficulty concentrating
    • Exaggerated startle response
    • Intrusive thoughts

 

 

When this Time magazine cover came out, we were only losing one soldier a day and now it’s up to twenty a day. Twenty of our veterans a day are committed suicide, so we obviously need to figure out a way to deal with that. The reality is that deployment and suicide are not necessarily related and there are studies that have been done, but the important point of the military suicides is that pharmaceuticals are not very effective.

  

Suicide rates were similar regardless of deployment status. There were 1,162 suicides among those who deployed and 3,879 among those who didn’t, representing suicide rates per 100,000 person-years of 18.86 and 17.78, respectively.

Leaving the military significantly increased suicide risk, however, with a suicide rate of 26.06 after separating from service compared with 15.12 for those who remained in uniform. Those who left sooner had a greater risk, with a rate of 48.04 among those who spent less than a year in the military.

 

Most people know that, and the studies have been done to show that there’s really not a pharmaceutical that does very much in helping deal with suicides and the emotions that go with it.

  

If you have treatment failures, it usually means you’re using the wrong paradigm. I’m going to suggest to you a different paradigm as we go through the day, but I’d first like to tell you how I ended up sitting in this chair.

I’m trained as an ophthalmologist in an atomic plastic surgery and I did the majority of the research for the laser that’s used in Lasik surgery for a company called VISX and I had a lot of fun doing that research but unfortunately we didn’t know at the time that the laser wouldn’t kill viruses. So as I would be treating eyes and particularly I treated this one fellow from India that had scars on his cornea and I used the laser to remove those scars but he had leukemia. Well, we didn’t know that the laser wouldn’t kill viruses and so the viruses came up off his eye through my mask into my nose and into my brain and I developed encephalitis. The result of that was that I could see a patient and know what was wrong with him but I couldn’t remember how to write a prescription. In addition to that, I developed fasting movement, so I’d be sitting there and do something like that which doesn’t work really well if you’re operating inside somebody’s eyeball.

For all of those reasons I had to quit working at the end of a November in 1995, so I spent about sixteen hours a day in bed sleeping and I had two or three hours a day in which I could think clearly enough to understand a newspaper and then like a light switch would go off and I couldn’t understand it anymore. During those two or three hours a day that I could think I had to figure out how to get myself well because the best doctors I could find at NIH in Boston and New York and wherever just said, “Well you got three viruses in your brain. We don’t know what to do about it. Go home and don’t call us, we’ll call you.”

During those two or three hours a day that I could think I began to try to figure out how to get myself well and I began to think about the fact that all the cells in the body work very much the same even though they look different. If I could figure out how to make one cell work, I could make them all work. I went out and bought 10 or 15 books on cellular biology and started to read in them, which I hadn’t done for about thirty years.

  

One of the things that resonated to me with those various books was the fact that cells are designed to run at a pH of 7.35 to 7.45. I didn’t really know too much about the pH. I remembered that was something have to do with acid-base balance but it didn’t really know a great deal more about it. As I began to look at pH I began to realize that pH describes voltage in a liquid. If you think about the wires that are bringing the voltage into these lights and to your computers, et cetera, that’s conductive electricity, of course with electrons flowing through a copper wire. But if you talk about a solution, a solution has the opportunity to be the electron donor or an electron stealer. In order to figure out which it is, use a sophisticated voltmeter if so to speak, called a pH meter, and when you measure liquid with a pH meter, it will give you either the pH or you can flip a switch and it will read it out in millivolts.

  

The reality then is voltage in a liquid we call pH, and by convention if you find that the solution is an electron stealer you put a plus sign in front of the voltage and if it’s an electron donor you put a minus sign in front of it, and then you convert the voltage that you measure with a logarithmic scale going from zero to 14 and call at pH. Plus 400 millivolts of electron stealer is the same as a pH of zero, whereas minus 400 millivolts of electron donor is the same thing as a pH of 14. And if it’s neutral, if it’s neither the electron stealer nor electron donor than that’s a pH of 7. When we say that cells must run at a pH of 7.35 to 7.45 we are saying that cells must run between -20 and -25 millivolts.

Guess what? Cells need energy to work. That makes sense.

People sometimes get confused with these numbers because if you take a cell in a petri dish and you put an electrode inside the cell and one outside the cell and you measure across the cell membrane you’ll get about -90 millivolts. But hopefully, not very many of you have your cells in petri dishes. But, in the environment of this body, they’re designed to run at -20 to -25 millivolts.

One of the things that you will find is the characteristic of essentially all chronic disease is that you have low voltage going to that organ.

  Healing is Voltage

 

    • Cells need -25 millivolts to run correctly and -50 millivolts of energy to make new cells.
    • All chronic disease is characterized by having inadequate voltage.

 

 

We are constantly wearing ourselves out and needing to make new cells. Different sources give slightly different times. Studies are based on tissue turnover time from natural stable isotope labeling. It varies according to bomb testing.

  
Cell renewal rates in different tissues of the human body. Values are rounded to one significant digit. Giving context through daily life replacement processes, we note that hair elongates at about 1 cm per month (BNID 109909) while fingernails grow at about 0.3 cm per month (BNID 109990), which is about the same speed as the continental spreading in plate tectonics that increases the distance between North America and Europe (BNID 110286). Source: How quickly do different cells in the body replace themselves?
How quickly do different cells in the body replace themselves?

 

The macula in your eye, today is only 48 hours old. In other words, you get new cells in your macular every 48 hours. The lining of your gut is three weeks old, the skin you’re sitting in today in six weeks old, your liver is eight weeks old, and your nervous system is eight months old. We are constantly wearing ourselves out and having to make new cells. It turns out then that the chronic disease only occurs when you lose the ability to make new cells that work.

Let me say that one more time. Chronic disease only occurs when you lose the ability to make new cells that work.

If that’s the case then we need to ask ourselves the question, “What does it take to make a new cells that work?

As I mentioned, it takes -25 millivolts for a cell to run but to make a new one it takes double that, it takes -50 millivolts. And then in addition to having a voltage to make new cells we have to have all of the nutrients to make a new cell. So if your house gets blown down with a tornado and you have to build a new one, guess what, you have to have everything you need to make it, you can’t build a new house with door knobs and bathroom tiles, you have to have shingles and rafters and doors and windows and say, you have to have everything it takes. And this is a big mistake people make when they’re trying to get well as they try one substance at a time: “Well, I want to see what works”. It is not going to work because you have to have everything all at one time to build a new cell. We have to have -50 millivolts of energy, we have to have everything it takes to make the cell, and then we have to deal with any of the toxins that are hanging around that damage cells as fast as we make them. The most common toxins we have to deal with are heavy metals like mercury, toxins coming out of our teeth, and GMO foods with the pesticide called Round RoundUp or glyphosate.

  What does it take to make new cells that work?

 

    • Cells run at -25 millivolts but it requires -50 millivolts to make new cells
    • We need all the materials that are necessary to make new cells. This is called “nutrition” and requires a functional digestive system including stomach acid.
    • We must deal with any toxins that destroy cells as fast as we make them. The most common toxins are heavy metals like mercury, dental toxins, and GMO foods with the pesticide called RoundUp (glyphosate).

 

 

Because the human body is a portable electronic device, like all electronic devices, it has to have a battery pack or multiple battery packs. The reality is that we have four different packs. The largest one of all is our muscles. Our muscles are piezoelectric. For those of you who aren’t physicists that funny word piezoelectricity means that if you stress a substance and it emits electrons that’s called piezoelectricity. When I move my muscles I’m generating electrons. Which is by the way why exercise is so important because exercise is the way the human body is designed to recharge your own personal battery pack.

  What is the body’s voltage system? The body has four battery packs

 

    • Our muscles are rechargeable battery packs. The fascia around muscles serves as the body’s wiring system.
    • Our cell membranes are small batteries called “capacitors”.
    • Inside the mitochondria we have a rechargeable battery system called “ATP/ADP”.
    • Our DNA has its own battery using scalar energy.

 

 

The reality is also that our muscles are rechargeable batteries. We have then these large muscles which are our main batteries and then these muscle battery packs are all hooked to our cell membranes. Now, cell membranes are capacitors. So what is a capacitor? A capacitor is a small battery and the way our cell membranes are designed is with a couple of opposing layers of funny fats called phospholipids, and these fats have a ball and then two legs. While the balls are electron conductors, the legs are insulators. So when you put them like this, you have two conductors separated by insulator which by definition is a capacitor, which means its stores electrons. And then inside the cell we have a mitochondria and inside the mitochondria we have another rechargeable battery system. When that battery system is charged up we call it ATP and then as it gives away its electrons and discharges we call it ADP.

  

Because we have a rechargeable battery system inside our mitochondria guess what else we need in there. A battery charger. The battery charger inside the cell is called the citric acid cycle or the CREB cycle. The CREB cycle runs on primarily fatty acids, and as you put fatty acids through the CREB cycle it creates electrons and for every unit of fatty acids that you put through the CREB cycle, if oxygen is present, you get enough electrons to charge up to 38 of these ATP batteries.

In addition, we have the DNA. We generally tend to look at DNA inside of ourselves from the side, and it looks like we took a couple of step ladders and twisted them. But if you look at it from the top it looks like this.

  

Every circle of DNA is golden mean. What that means is that the diameters is 1.618 times the height and so forth, and any place in the universe where there is something that’s golden mean or in the shape of platonic solid it will cause implosion of scalar energy. Because our DNA is golden mean the scalar implode into it and gives it its charge so that it has the energy to do its job.

We have our muscles stacked one on top of each other in a very specific order like stack in batteries in a flash light. Surrounding the stack of muscle batteries we have a substance called fascia which is very much like a stocking. Fascia is that shiny stuff you see when you carve the Christmas turkey. The interesting thing about fascia is that fascia is a semiconductor. So what is semiconductor? Semiconductor is a collection of molecules arranged in such a way that electrons move through it at the speed of light but only in one direction.

  

We have then this continuous stack of muscles going from our toes up to our brain or from our fingers up to our brain and surrounded by this stocking which serves basically as the wiring system for the body. We have then the stack of muscle batteries surrounded by the fascia so that every organ in the body has its own battery pack. Because every organ in the body has its own battery pack we have the ability to isolate and measure that voltage and figure out why that organ is functioning. Stack of muscle batteries is what’s been called an acupuncture meridian. An acupuncture meridian is simply a stack of muscle batteries.

This is an example of an acupuncture meridian called a spleen meridian.

  

Spleen meridian starts down in the big toe, goes up the inside of the leg, then there’s a special branch as you can see, it goes over to the female genitalia, then it goes around the back where it gets the adrenal glands, the spleen and the pancreas, then it goes on up into the neck and makes a loop and hooks into what is called a stomach circuit, and then the stomach circuit gets the macula of the eye. By the way, if anybody has macular degeneration, it is because you have a low voltage in your stomach circuit. It powers the frontal lobes, which is the thinking part of your brain, then it gets the thyroid, the breast, the stomach, the male genitalia and then back down to the big toe. So it makes a loop.

  

We have six of these loops of muscle batteries that provide the 25 millivolts you need for the organs to work and the 50 millivolts to repair them. Chronic disease occurs when one of these muscle battery packs won’t hold a charge.

  

Spleen/Stomach Circuit

 

    • The spleen/stomach circuit supplies the ~25 millivolts needed for all the organs on the circuit to work and also the ~50 millivolts needed to make new cells to keep these organs repaired.
    • This circuit supplies the voltage for the entire reproductive system the entire endocrine system, the thinking part of the brain, and the macula of the eye.
    • When this battery pack cannot hold a charge, you have chronic illness in one or more of these organs.

 

 

That leads us to the question: Why won’t that battery pack hold a charge?

  Muscle Battery Packs

 

    • We have six of these loops of muscle battery packs that provide the ongoing voltage for all of the organs to work and to repair themselves.
    • When you have a chronic disease, you must ask two questions:

       

        1. What is the power supply to the malfunctioning organ?
        2. Why won’t that battery pack hold a charge?

       

       

 

 

There is a checklist that you can go through to try to figure out why it why it won’t hold a charge, but basically you have to look at thyroid hormone, because the thyroid Harmon T3 controls the voltage of every cell membrane in the body and T2 controls the voltage in the mitochondria. You have to be sure and get the thyroid hormone levels correct. Then if you were to put a scar across one of these circuits, if you put a scar across one of these muscle battery packs here, it is going to short it out and drain off some of the voltage.

Scars can be a significant problem but the only scars that really take you completely down are those on the main line, on your main cable. A scar across your knee will generally just lower it a few millivolts but enough to cause some problems.

In addition, emotions are stored in the body as magnetic fields. So if you have a magnetic field, it is stuck in one of these muscle battery packs here, it’s going to block the voltage, so it won’t go through.

And then finally, dental infections are a significant problem because each of these circuits go through very specific teeth.

  

Here you see that we have this main cable that goes up the back and down the front, and then from that main cable you get the voltage coming from our arms and our legs, and they’d come up to these lateral terminals, and then from those lateral terminals they go to this central one, and then it starts looping around the body, and as it loops around the back it has the option then of going out and attaching to the ganglia that are up and down the spinal cord which we call the autonomic ganglia, and then from the autonomic ganglia it goes to every organ in the body.

  


These are the human body’s wiring and battery pack systems and whenever you have chronic disease you will have failure of one of these electronic systems. Whenever you have some sort of illness you simply have to start out asking the question: So what’s the battery pack to that illness? If you have heart disease, you would say: What’s the battery pack for the heart? Well, it’s obviously the heart muscle battery pack.

There are others that are not as obvious. For example, a spleen stomach circuit is the power supply for the entire endocrine system, the entire reproductive system in both males and females, the macula of the eye, and the thinking part of the brain. And of course, when that system goes out, which is one the more common ones to go out, then you start having failure of those organ systems.

How do we know if the voltage is low in a circuit? Well, we have the ability to measure it with certain acupuncture points using what amounts to a specially designed ohm-meter.

  

As we begin to identify the power pack that is not working correctly we have two things in front of us: one is to figure out why that battery pack won’t hold a charge, and then the second is to try to recharge the battery pack while we’re figuring out how to fix the reason that we got into trouble in the first place.

  Muscle Battery Packs

 

    • We have six of these loops of muscle battery packs that provide the ongoing voltage for all of the organs to work and to repair themselves.
    • When you have a chronic disease, you must ask two questions:

       

        1. What is the power supply to the malfunctioning organ?
        2. Why won’t that battery pack hold a charge?

       

       

 

 

We have developed this device called a bio-transducer that puts out both electromagnetic and scalar energy and if you simply aim it at the failing organ you can begin to recharge the cells in that organ itself. And then you want to come behind it and to charge the muscle battery packs.

  Charge the Muscle Battery Pack

 

    • Plug the patch wire into the BioModulator
    • Each plug set has a red and a black connector
    • Use the next two charts to apply the patches paying attention to the colored dots
    • Put your BioModulator into Ten-i. Being the power up until you can barely feel the tingle in one of the patches
    • Run for several hours to charge the muscle battery

 

 

These diagrams that we have here where you see the red and the black dots show you where to put the polarity because every battery pack like every other battery you are aware of has its terminals in polarity. So you take patches and you stick the patches on to where the terminals of that battery pack that doesn’t have enough charge, hook it on to the bio modulator which is a little portable device that looks a bit like a computer mouse, and it puts out wave forms that are designed to implode energy and transfer energy to the cells and recharge your muscle battery packs. So you are recharging the organ or you recharging the muscle battery packs while you’re working on figuring out why that battery pack won’t hold a charge in the first place.

  

One of the interesting things is that our bodies are wired up like many circuit boards.

  

As you know, many electronic circuit boards use Tesla resonating circuits. A Tesla resonating circuit is a combination of a capacitor and a coil wired in parallel. When you do that, it has the ability to communicate with other systems that are a combination of Tesla resonating circuits.

In the body, the long is always wired to the large intestine, the heart is always wired to the small intestine, the spleen and pancreas are always wired to the stomach, the kidney is always wired to the bladder, and the liver is always wired to the gall bladder, each of these created in a Tesla resonating circuit, and because they are Tesla circuits they are able to communicate with each other.

So one part of our body knows what’s going on in the other part of the body because we are wired up with the Tesla resonating circuits.

  

 

All of these circuits go through specific teeth that act like circuit breakers.

 

 

All of these various circuits in the body go through very specific teeth. The teeth act like circuit breakers.

  

If you began to have an infection in one of your teeth it will at first reduce the voltage in that circuit and later actually switch it off. The spleen stomach circuit we’ve been talking about is the one that you see in yellow here, it’s the upper molars and lower premolars. If you have an infection in an upper molar it is going to begin to affect your spleen stomach circuit which means it is going to affect your entire reproductive system, your entire endocrine system, the thinking part of your brain, and the macula of your eye. Most people with macular degeneration have an infection in an upper molar on the same side as their macular degeneration.

One of the issues then is how do teeth enter into this whole system?

  Why won’t the battery pack hold a charge?

 

    • Most chronic disease begins with an emotional event causing a magnetic field in a tooth!
    • Emotions are stored in the body as magnetic fields.
    • Emotions block the flow of electrons through a tooth, lowering the voltage in that circuit.
    • Emotions block the dental pump, allowing for decay and dental infections to occur, further lowering the voltage in that circuit.

 

 

It turns out that the teeth appear to function similar to the way that a lymph node does in the lymphatic system. If you have infection in your lymphatic system and it goes up the lymphatics it gets caught and trapped in a lymph node. Emotions are trapped in the body as magnetic fields and those magnetic fields tend to end up being trapped in the teeth. What you’ll find is that the majority of chronic illness actually begins with an emotional event. Let me say it one more time. The majority of chronic disease actually begins as an emotional event, and that emotion is a magnetic field that starts blocking the circuit by getting caught in one of the teeth and as it does so it begins to lower the voltage in the tooth.

  

Dr. Steinman showed that every tooth has within it a pump that pumps fluid from inside the tooth to inside the mouth and that’s what keeps you from getting cavities. Your kids will be happy to know that it’s not Snicker bars that cause their cavities, it is the failure of this pump. When the pump begins to fail infection comes from the mouth into the tooth and begins to cause decay. Emotion lowers the voltage enough in the tooth that the pump begins to fail, and then you begin to get a cavity, and then you begin to get a crown, and then you can begin to eventually keep going until you get a root canal and then that leads eventually to having a malignancy.

  Dr. Steinman’s Research

 

    • Steinman demonstrated that odontoblasts were hormonally and biochemically linked to the metabolism of the body, as well as to the health and function of the teeth.
    • If odontoblasts cease to pump fluid, capillary action sucks bacteria and other noxious materials from the mouth or surrounding periodontium into the tooth, leading to microbial contamination and biofilm formation within the dentin tubules. Steinman produced many slides demonstrating this flow going in both directions.

 

Roggenkamp, Clyde, PhD, Dentinal Fluid Transport, Loma Linda, Calif., Loma Linda Univ. Press, 2004

Again, most of the chronic disease begins as emotions.

  Emotions and Chronic Disease
As voltage in a circuit is blocked by an emotional magnetic field, the lowering of voltage starts the cascade of chronic disease.

Obviously, there are some circumstances where that’s not the case. If you were living in Tokyo when Fukujima blew up and you were radiated that’s not necessarily an emotional event in the sense that you may not had known that you just got radiated but it’s going to make you sick. But generally speaking, most of the chronic disease we can trace back to emotion that has blocked a particular muscle battery pack by blocking the tooth that’s involved with it.

When you look at this particular slide, you might ask the question didn’t anybody ever teach you not to put so many numbers on one slide?

  

Well, I did it on purpose because I wanted you to get the gestalt of it. What you will see here is that a pH of 7.35 is the same as minus 20 millivolts, and 7.44 is the same as minus 25. That’s where our cells normally run, but as voltage begins to drop then things begin to get worse and worse for us until we finally get down to plus 30 millivolts. All cancers occur at plus 30 millivolts.

What you see is that normal tissue is running as electron donor at minus 25 millivolts and as you go past zero you have flipped the polarity. That is, every battery, as you know, has a plus on one and a minus on the other end and as you drain a battery all the way to zero it flips its polarity upside down. When the polarity reverses in and it gets all the way down to plus 30 millivolts is when malignancies occurred.

We don’t have time to really go into that much detail today but the amount of oxygen that will dissolve in water is dictated by the voltage of the water, so as the water inside of our cells has lower and lower voltage than the oxygen in the cell comes out of the cell and disappears and when you finally flip the polarity there is so little oxygen capability in the cell that the stem cells recognize that signal that: Hey, we just ran out of oxygen here, please help. And so, stem cells go over and invade the local blood supply and create a mass of blood vessels that we call a cancer which is indistinguishable from a placenta in a pregnant female. So basically, all solid tumors are placentas which is the body’s way of responding to lack of voltage and oxygen.

If we begin then to think about the way that this works, think about my thumb.

  

My thumb is a perfectly good thumb by the way, it runs in what voltage? Minus 25 millivolts. Now if I hit it with a hammer and destroy some cells in my thumb what is going to happen is that the thumb is immediately going to go to minus 50 millivolts. Minus 50 millivolts causes the arterials to dilate and the reason that happens of course is we need the raw materials dumped at the curb there, so to speak, so that we can rebuild the cells we destroyed with the hammer. But when those capillaries dilate we get all the signs we normally call inflammation, we have redness, we have swelling, we have heat, we have a pulsing pain, and it makes you say bad words. My thumb gets busy and it makes new cells to replace those I smashed with a hammer, it goes back to minus 25 millivolts and I’m a happy camper.

But on the other hand, if when I smashed my thumb the power supply going to the thumb is inadequate to provide the minus 50 millivolts I need to make new cells, then my thumb won’t heal and I am stuck in chronic disease. You see that? So I can take all the pills I want, I can do all the surgery I want on the thumb but it will never get well until I do what? Insert enough electrons to get me up to minus 50 millivolts.

If you understand what I just told you about the thumb you understand basically my whole lecture, so I can go home now. Oh no, I still have a little bit more. But the point is that chronic disease occurs when you don’t have enough voltage to make new cells. As voltage begins to drop the oxygen begins to drop and when oxygen drops there are several bad things that begin to happen.

  
    • The amount of oxygen that will dissolve in water is dictated by the voltage of the water.
    • Efficiency of metabolism is controlled by oxygen which is controlled by voltage.

 

 

The one of the things that, as I mentioned earlier, is that you begin to have less ATP, which is the voltage inside the cell that cell needs to do its business.

  

I also mentioned to you that that because of the CREB cycle, being able to recharge 38 of these ATP batteries for every unit of fatty acid you put through the CREB cycle, that’s only true if oxygen is available. If oxygen is unavailable then for every unit of fatty acid you put through the battery charger you only have enough electrons to charge up two batteries. So it’s a bit like having a car that goes from 38 miles a gallon to two miles a gallon. Your cells become very inefficient.

  As voltage drops switch from aerobic (O2 available) to anaerobic (O2 unavailable) metabolism

 

    • ATP production: 2 or 5 ATP in anaerobic metabolism vs. 36 or 37 ATP in aerobic metabolism.
    • Glucose + 2ADP + 2 Phosphate ® 2 Lactic Acid + 2 ATP
    • This is like getting 2 miles/gallon of gasoline vs. 36 miles/gallon.

 

 

In addition to having inefficiency of the intercellular voltage we have problems with bugs.

  “Bugs”

 

    • The body contains about one trillion “bugs”. They are suppressed by oxygen.
    • Most are cell-wall deficient so the immune system can’t see them and they don’t cause fever and a change in the blood profile.
    • When oxygen levels drop, they wake up and want to have lunch.

 

 

The body contains perhaps trillion bugs of various kinds and the majority of them are suppressed by oxygen, but as oxygen levels begin to drop because voltage drops then these bugs wake up, and the first thing the bugs want to do is have lunch and they want to have you for lunch. Bugs don’t have teeth that they can take a bite out of you, so instead they put out digestive enzymes to dissolve your cells so they can get the nutrients. Think about having a sore throat. The strep bacteria on your tonsils having a picnic and they are having a good old time but you have the worlds worst sore throat, you have headache, you have fever, you have vomiting, you have diarrhea, your joints hurt, you have a miserable day, and it’s because the bugs are having their way by putting out these digestive enzymes to get their nutrients out of the cells.

As voltage and oxygen drop more and more these microorganisms lose their cell membranes and become what have been called cell wall deficient organisms or stealth pathogens. One of the problems with that is, first of all, you can’t culture them. Secondly, you don’t see them with the standard microscope, you need one of these fancy microscopes called phase contrast or dark field microscope. These bugs put out various toxins that begin to damage the local tissue. Often what we call an auto-immune disease is simply these bugs having their way with your local tissue, as they put out their toxins you get the signs of inflammation and swelling and so forth. But if you try to culture anything or look at a biopsy of that area you don’t see anything because normal hospitals and physicians offices don’t use one of these microscopes to where you can actually see them.

  

 

“Bugs” when voltage is low

 

 

In these images on the screen you see these various all efficient bugs inside red blood cells consuming them. In the lower right you see where I took red blood cells, put it under a cover slip on a microscope slide, and let it sit there for a few hours to consume all of the oxygen and you see lyme crawling out of the red cells. Everybody in this room has lyme disease, it’s just whether or not your immune system has the ability to deal with it, whether you have symptoms from it.

As the voltage gets down toward plus 30 millivolts, then this cell wall deficient fungus shows up and you begin to have these kinds of sales. This is a blood from a fellow who had leukemia and you can see the fungal forms in his blood.

  

 

Fungal forms in cancer

 

 

  Emotion to chronic disease
While the lowering of voltage progresses from discomfort to organ malfunction, dental infections are progressing as well.
  

I want to go to talk to you a minute more about teeth because that’s terribly important in the understanding how to get people well. If you look at the lower left image you see a car battery that has corrosion around it which means that the alternator and that car is going to have trouble keeping that battery charged up. Well, the tooth just above it is attached to a muscle battery. But it also has corrosion and thus it also has trouble keeping that battery charged up. And then as corrosion in either your car battery or tooth gets worse over time then it gets harder and harder and harder and harder to keep your battery packs charged up. Eventually in the car battery the corrosion will come outside the battery itself and start corroding through your battery cable, which now means you now have a total short circuit and your car won’t start.

  

 

More severe infection acts like a circuit breaker

 

 

This process occurs in the body when the infection in the tooth moves out into the bone. When you have infection in a bone around a tooth it actually works just like a circuit breaker and takes down that circuit. There are two circumstances in which that occurs. One is a root canal tooth which is of course a dead tooth. Most of you may know the way you do a root canal you drill a little hole in the top of tooth and you put an arder down and you rip out the arder and you rip out the nerve and kill the tooth and then you fill it with putty. The problem is that now the tooth is dead and all dead tissue gets infected. The dentists are the only physicians that believe you can get away with leaving dead tissue in the body. No other doctor believes that.

One root canal tooth shuts down 63% of your immune system. What makes it worse is that it then gets into the bone and when it gets into the bone it shuts off that circuit. So now the voltage drops significantly in that circuit and that’s why you find it.

We looked at all the cancer patients we’ve seen in our clinic. In 95% of them are associated with the root canal or an infected bone where a tooth had been pulled. 95%! Leading contributor to cancer is having an infection in the bone around one of the teeth.

  

 

Pulling teeth leaving ligament behind

 

 

In addition to root canal there’s a problem with teeth get pulled because teeth are held into the bone by a ligament called a periodontal ligament. What dentists are trained to do is wiggle the tooth, make it loose, take it out, put a stitch in and quit leaving the ligament behind. When you do that it’s very hard for the bone to heal because the ligaments are in the way. Even if the dentist happens to be one who takes the time to scrape out that ligament, because the mouth is such a dirty place, oftentimes people get infection in the bone during the first few days of healing once a tooth been pulled. And that’s called a cavitation, by the way. So whether you have infection from a root canal or from a cavitation it tends to shut down the circuit and one of the problems is that infection in the bone then tends to move over and take out the next circuit.

Infection (cavitation) in wisdom tooth spreads to take out spleen/stomach (adrenal) as well

A huge problem is that our kids are in high school and they go to the dentist and they say, “Oh you gotta get your wisdom teeth out. It’s that old thing of, what if you go to Midas you get a muffler.

A study came out last year showing that 65% of root canal extractions were unnecessary. Nevertheless, they get their wisdom teeth pulled and now they start getting infection in that area, and the wisdom teeth circuit is hard small intestine, but listen, it’s the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic nervous system is the body’s on/off switches. So all of a sudden, within days after getting their wisdom teeth extracted, the kids have lost their on/off switch, which means that their body doesn’t allow to control itself. Then over time it begins to move next door and take out the spleen/stomach circuit. Now remember that the spleen circuit is the power supply to the adrenal glands. So now, soon they’ve lost their control panel, their on/off system, and then they lose their adrenals, so they can’t deal with stress, and so they begin to become what many people say, “Oh, he’s just a teenager.” Well, he’s not just a teenager, he’s lost his ability, the whole way the body deals with stress. And so many of our kids hide themselves within electronics because within the electronics they have an on/off switch. In their body they don’t. So they can’t deal with the real world anymore. And so they hide within their cellphones and their Game Boys or whatever you call them.

Nevertheless, this is a huge problem.

When you lose your ability to make adrenalin you go down the following slippery slope, you have trouble going to sleep, you have trouble dealing with stress, you have trouble with your memory, and then you can’t multitask. So you’re sitting reading a book or watching TV and somebody says, “Hey, do you want mustard or mayonnaise?” You become very annoyed because they interrupted you. But you don’t have the middle horse power to stay attached to whatever you were doing, so you detach, you pick mustard, you go back to your book, and now you can’t remember your place, and you’re even more annoyed. And then it gets to where you don’t like any stimulus, so you don’t like loud noises, loud music, rowdy crowds, can’t be around people or arguing, and eventually it gets to where you don’t even want to be touched, you just want to sit in the corner and have people leave you the heck alone. And then your sexual quits working, and then you can’t go to sleep before 11, and when you wake up you’re still tired. All of that’s due to loss of spleen power supply to your adrenals.

Well, what I’ve just described, of course is very destructive. If you can’t deal with the life of the world, you can’t be a good spouse and particularly if your sexual equipment doesn’t work anymore then that’s a big problem in a marriage. You can’t be a good parent because kids make noise and want something from you and you have nothing to give. You can’t be a good worker, you can’t be a good friend, you can’t be good at much of anything, so your life is in the toilet simply because you’ve lost the spleen circuit that goes to the adrenal glands, and that’s a huge problem in our society.

  Emotions are stored in teeth, affecting that circuit
Different researchers have identified which emotion are stored in which circuits

 

 

I spoke earlier about mapping the field of emotions and this is the traditional Chinese one, so that the various circuits have to these various sorts of emotions get stuck in these various particular places or in the teeth that are associated with these.

Dr. Bennis published these:

  

Elieen has published hers which is this group of where things get stuck:

  BioField

 

“Just as the brain is compartmentalized with different areas responsible for different functions, so is the BioField, with specific areas holding information related to specific emotions, states of mind, and relationships.”

  


As far as the erasing emotions is concerned, because emotions are magnetic field you can erase them with a stronger magnetic field. One of the laws of physics is if you take any magnet and you put a stronger magnet over it then the weaker magnet assumes the characteristics of the stronger one. When you have these emotions that are stuck you can begin to erase them in a variety of different ways. There are several groups over the years that have looked at this subject and tried to figure out how to do it yet.

  Erasing Emotional Magnetic Fields

 

    • Various groups have worked to erase emotions: EFT, PsychK, Emotion Code, Psychosomatic Energetics, Bach Flowers, BioField, etc.
    • BioField Tuning uses the scalar energy of sound to erase the emotions.
    • Emotional magnetic fields can be erased by another magnetic field.
    • Characteristic of most of the various methods of removing emotions is that the patient must think of the emotional events while the therapeutic magnetic field is applied.
    • Some emotions we can remember.
    • Some emotions have a “wall” around them so we can’t remember them. Asking questions about events such as time, place, people involved, etc., can help unlock that memory so it can be erased.

 

 

  

We had developed one where you can, if you can think about emotion while holding to these hand grips with your bio-modulator, you can erase the emotion, but when we did that we were doing in one emotion at the time, and of course, Eileen talked to you this morning about using her tuning fork to do it which is very effective.

What I have recently found out is that if you treat the wisdom teeth which treats your autonomic nervous system, then you can not only change the polarity in all of your various circuits at one time but you can also knock out many of the emotions automatically.

  

Pendulum is actually like a single string on a guitar and the weight on the pendulum makes the streak talk, so when it is moved, it’s actually resonating with whatever frequency the string is. What you do is you hold this pendulum over the heart small intestine autonomic system and you take the bio transducer, and simply put it over the wisdom teeth and you watch the pendulum and it will always be spinning backwards if the voltage is low counter clock-wise and you keep holding it there and pretty soon it will slow down and then it will start spinning clockwise.

And then you do the same on the other side holding the pendulum them over the heart small intestine circuit, put the bio-transducer over the autonomic system where you can access the tooth, watch it spin backwards and then in the correct way. And now when you go back and check all of the circuits, you’ve corrected the polarity in every circuit, and many of the emotions that you had found in the BioField are already gone as well.

  More Information

 

For further discussion of Golden Mean, Implosion of energy into cells, the Bowling Ball Syndrome, etc., beyond the time limitations of this presentation, see the Senergy Medical Group representatives.

Unfortunately, I don’t have the time to talk to you about how we’re wired up with polarity and how our bodies are golden mean and how implosion occurs. If you are interested in those subjects then we have some videos that will help you in that area plus we’ll be giving some demonstration. If there are any of you in the audience who happen to have any emotion, anybody here? We’ll be doing some demonstrations in the breakout room.

So what I’ve hoped to accomplish in these few minutes I had to talk with you is to help you understand that the body is an electronic device which has multiple battery packs and the chronic disease occurs when those battery packs won’t hold a charge, and that getting well involves you identifying which battery packs are failing you, identifying the reason that they’re failing you and fixing that so that it’s basically what we’re doing. It is like you coming home from work and open the fridge and it’s hot in there and the lamp in the living room won’t turn on, the TV in the bedroom won’t turn on, and you go out in the garage and flip the circuit breaker and now everything thing works. That’s the way we do medicine now. As we figure out which circuit breakers are out, we go fix it, turn you back on and let your body heal itself which it does very well if it has the voltage, the nutrients and deal with the toxins.

Thank you for allowing me to be here.

Proces FRT terapije koji koristi Kvantna zona, je patentirani proces zasnovan na godinama naučnog istraživanja i dokazanih studija.

SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR USING ELECTRICAL CURRENTS IN HEALING
Key Points:
Electrical potentials and electrical currents occur at all levels within the body; from the body as a whole, down to an intracellular level.
Electrical potentials and electrical currents direct and control cell behavior.
These electrical potentials and currents are generated and maintained by Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).
ATP Synthesis is generated by electron flow.

Electrical Potentials and Currents in the Body
Key Point:
Electrical potentials and the resulting Electrical currents occur at all levels within the body; from the body as a whole, down to an intracellular level.

We all know that electrical currents exist in our bodies; with the measurement of the electrical currents in the heart by an ECG, in the brain by an EEG, in the peripheral nerves by nerve conduction studies, and in muscles by an EMG.

There are also a variety of devices out on the market now that measure the electrical currents running through our body’s meridian systems, although these are not routinely recognized or used within the orthodox medical system.
F.R.T Technolgy are thought to utilize the recipients’ meridian system to deliver its current (or electrons).
The electrical currents occurring within individual organ systems and at a cellular level are driven by electrical potentials created by the cells and organs. Two examples of these are ‘Cell Wall Membrane Potentials’, and ‘Transepithelial Potentials (TEP’s) i.e. this is an electrical potential across an epithelial layer such as the skin. Overall, our bodies are thought to be more negatively charged on the outside than at our centre. An Electrical Potential is the difference in charge (positive [+ve] and negative [-ve]) between 2 areas, e.g. the +ve and –ve terminals of a fully charged battery. It is the electrical potentials that drive the currents just like a battery drives the current around a circuit. The cells create these electrical potentials by ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) driven pumps within [on] the cell walls. These ATP driven pumps actively pump positively charged ions across the cell wall resulting in a greater number of positively charged ions on the outside of the cell wall, or on one side of a membrane than the other. This creates a positive area and the resulting negatively charged area or an electrical potential.

These electrical potentials are critical in wound healing process and in the creation of ATP as described later. It is at these deeper and more subtle electrical levels in the body that the EPRT devices are having an effect.

The Role of Electrical Potentials and Electrical Currents at the cellular level
Key Point:
Electrical Potentials and Electrical Currents Direct and Control Cell Behavior.

To help understand these electrical potentials and electrical currents we are going to examine their role in three areas:

 

 

A series of studies [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] measuring electrical potentials and electrical currents were carried out on Axolotl, Xenopus, and Chick embryos. All studies described electrical potentials and electrical currents. The electrical potentials were found to run in specific and uniform directions; from rostrocaudal (head to tail) and mediolateral (midline to edge). The Electrical currents flowed out of specific areas of the embryos, and these areas were found to be the areas of major tissue movement. The electrical current densities were found to be in the order of 100uA/cm2.

Figure 1 (above).Spatial differences in the transepithelial potential difference (TEP) generate electric fields within intact embryos. A: TEP measurements made using glass voltage-sensing electrodes. The TEP of axolotl embryos was measured relative to a bath ground electrode at the time of early neural tube formation (stage 16) in three positions on the same embryo. Measurement sites are shown in B: a, at the rostral end of the neural groove; b, at the lateral edge of the neural fold; c, at the lateral epithelium; d, halfway along the neural groove; e, at the caudal end of the neural groove near the blastopore. The TEP at each site was positive on the inside of the embryo. [Data from Shi and Borgens (180).] B: TEP measurements made at sites a, b, and c in 8 embryos demonstrating that the TEP is highest in the center of the neural groove (a) and lowest at the lateral edge of the neural ridge (b). Measurements from 20 embryos at site a, d, and e indicates a rostral to caudal TEP gradient. [Data from Shi and Borgens (180); embryo in B and D modified from Borgens and Shi (26).] C: an artist’s impression of the spatial differences of TEP in a stage 16 axolotl embryo. Colors represent the magnitude of the TEP. Yellow is highest, and purple is lowest. The slope of the line indicates the magnitude of the resulting local electric field in the subepidermal tissues. [Modified from Shi and Borgens (180).] D: current loops detected using a non-invasive vibrating electrode. The electrode vibrates rapidly near the embryo in an electrically conductive medium (e.g., pond water). The stainless steel electrode has a small voltage sensing platinum ball at its tip, which is vibrated rapidly over a distance of _20 _m. The electrode (red) is shown at the extremes of its vibration. The voltage is determined at each point, and the current density at the measurement site is calculated using known values for distance from the embryo and the resistivity of the bathing medium. As would be predicted from the spatial variation of TEP illustrated in A and B, there is outward current at the lateral edges of the neural ridges, inward current at the center of the neural groove, inward current at the lateral skin, and a large outward current at the blastopore.
The studies then disrupted the naturally occurring (endogenous) electrical potentials and currents by either enhancing them (hyperpolarising) or reducing them (depolarising) and examined the effects on the embryo’s. The results were astounding.

Results:
The embryo’s exposed to electrical fields reported 87-95% abnormality rates, while the control embryos reported 11-17% abnormality rates. The abnormalities seen consisted of; absence of cranium, loss of one or both eyes, misshapen head, abnormal brachial development, incomplete closure of neural folds, incomplete notocord development, and cells were seen to migrate out of the embryo and developed autonomously in the dish while other cells that had differentiated were reduced to a formless mass of apparently dedifferentiated cells. They also showed that the axis of cell division can be determined by applied and endogenous Electrical Fields.
In summary, endogenous electrical fields with normal polarity and magnitude are essential for normal development and the pattern of electrical potentials within embryos provide a gross template or blueprint for the development of the embryos guiding differentiation and movement of the cells within the embryo.

 


It has been known for over 150yrs that endogenous electrical currents played a part in wound healing, with a German physiologist Emil Du-Bois Reymond measuring a 1uA current flowing out of a cut in his own finger!

These electrical currents arise as a result of a standing electrical potential that is constant and maintained across the epithelial layer of the skin. This electrical potential is called a ‘Transepithelial Potential’ or TEP’s. On the surface layer of the epithelium there is passive influx of positively charged sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions. On the basal cell membrane there are Na+/K+ ATPases that actively pump Na+ out of the cell into the matrix. This results in a higher concentration of Na+ inside the skin relative to the outer surface creating a TEP. Intact skin therefore represents a biological battery. This is powered by ATP.

Injury currents occur when there is a break in the epithelial layer resulting in an out-flowing of Na+ ions from the inner layer of the skin (high concentration) to the outer layers of the skin (lower concentration). This out flow of positively charged ions is an electrical current, and this electrical current creates a bioelectrical field. Electrical fields are important as having both magnitude and direction. They can impose directional movement on chemicals in the extracellular environment, on receptor molecules, on cells and on tissues [8]. This explains how the great German physiologist Emil Du-Bois Reymond measured a 1uA current flowing out of his own cut finger in 1843, and Robert Beckers observations of the currents flowing out of the wounds of amputated salamander tails and limbs in the 1960’s and 1970’s.

The instant a wound is created a Direct Current Electrical Field (DC EF) is set up. McCaig claims that “In evolutionary terms, membrane resealing to close an electrical leak is among the most primitive activities that cells undertake.”

So what do these electrical currents mean in terms of the healing process?
Two studies [9,10] looking at wound induced electrical fields (EF) in bovine cornea and guinea pig and human skin not only proved the existence of electrical fields which dropped exponentially with the distance from the wound, but also came to the following conclusions:


All cell behaviors within approximately 500um of a wound edge in skin and cornea take place within a standing gradient voltage. These include epithelial cell migration, epithelial cell division, nerve sprouting, leukocyte infiltration, and endothelial cell remodeling with associated angiogenesis i.e. the whole gamut of cellular responses to injury.
Because the voltage gradient dropped exponentially with the distance from the wound any cell behaviors governed by the endogenous EF would be regulated differently with the distance from the wound.
Increasing or decreasing the TEP would inevitably increase or decrease the voltage gradient profile at the wound.
Studies [11, 12, and 13] were then done on rats cornea’s manipulating the endogenous EF’s by either enhancing or reducing the endogenous EF’s or by applying exogenous electrical currents.
These studies looked at;
i. Healing rates,
ii. Proliferation of cells,
iii. Axis of cell division,
iv. And nerve growth.

Results:
i. The direction and rate of migrating epithelial cells into the wound was affected by the EF. Enhancing the EF healed the corneal wound 2.5 times faster while reducing the EF slowed the rate of healing to 18% of normal.

ii. The proliferation of epithelial cells. Similarly there was a 40% increase in cell divisions within 600um of the wound edge in the corneas whose EF was enhanced, and a 27% suppression of mitoses in the corneas whose EF was reduced

iii. The axis of cell division. It was found that in the dividing cells, the mitotic spindle aligns parallel to the EF, and the cleavage occurred perpendicular to this. The orientation of the dividing cells reduced the further away from the wound edge, as the strength of the EF reduces. Again cells in an enhanced EF roughly doubled the proportion of dividing cells whose cleavage plans were perpendicular to the EF, and corneas treated in a reduced EF

iv. The proportion of nerves sprouting at the wound, and the direction of growth of nerve sprouts towards the wound edge. The corneas in an enhanced EF showed neurite growth enhanced with more sprouts appearing, they appeared earlier, and orientated towards the wound edge earlier. Reducing the EF did not prevent early collateral nerve sprouting, but the nerve growth was not directed towards the wound edge.

v. EFs were found to stimulate secretion in the extracellular space of growth factors (VEGF) from endothelial cells [14].

vi. EFs were found to upregulate expression of growth factor receptors (EGFR) on corneal epithelial cells [15].

vii. In an applied DC EF with the cathode at the wound edge the wound healed faster, but with the anode at the wound edge the wound not only failed to close but actually opened up [16].

It was concluded that because electrical signals arise immediately in a wound and control multiple cell behaviors in vivo, the physiological EF may orchestrate an integrated response of interdependent cell behaviors that includes the epithelial and nerve interactions essential for wound healing. Consequently, the EF is at the head of a hierarchy of cues that interact to promote wound healing [8].

 


All cells have an electrical potential across their cell membrane that makes the outside of the cell relatively positively charged compared to the inside of the cell. This again represents a biological battery. The charge across a healthy cell membrane is approximately -70mV. To put this into perspective, if the membrane is 7-10nm thick then the corresponding voltage is 10 million volts per meter [17]. Maintenance of this cell membrane electrical potential is essential for the normal workings of the cell.

This amazing membrane potential is generated and maintained by the disproportionate pumping of sodium ions (Na+) out of the cell and potassium.

ions (K+) into the cell. Three (3) Na+ are pumped out of the cell for every two (2) K+ pumped into the cell. This results in a greater number Na+ outside the cell compared to the number of K+ inside the cell and therefore a greater positive charge outside the cell. This pump that lives in the cell wall is called Na+/K+ ATPase, and as the named suggests is powered by ATP. Interestingly Magnesium also plays an integral role in the process binding onto the Na+/K+ ATPase pump with ATP.

 

There are a multitude of other ion channels in the cell wall membranes that transfer ions from one side of the cell wall to the other. While not powered by ATP they are affected by the electrical potential of the cell membrane (Voltage gradient) and also produce electrical currents of their own. These ion channels open or close by changing their shape as a result of the activation of a receptor part of the molecule or changes in the cell wall membrane potential. They also contain a voltage sensitive gate which as the name suggests opens or closes with changes in voltage gradients (or electrical potentials).

Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann [18] won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1991, “for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”. They essentially devised a method of measuring the electrical currents in a single ion channel in the cell wall. What they found was there existed electrical currents in the range of picoAmpere occurring inside the ion channels that corresponded with the opening and closing of that ion channel.
In summary, we can see that not only do electrical potentials and electrical currents exist in cell wall membranes, but they control and direct the membranes ability to transfer ions across the cell wall membrane, the influx and efflux of nutrients and toxins, and so as a result influencing the internal and external environment and overall health of the cell.


Conclusion

In conclusion we can see that the body generates and maintains electrical potentials at the cell wall, across epithelial layers, as well that through the body as a whole. That the more subtle electrical potentials and currents control cell behavior in embryonic development, in wound healing, and within the cell in the cell wall membranes.

If you are working to change cellular, organ behavior or patterns with nutrients, herbs, or drugs, you do not have a hope if the electrical message being generated at a cellular level is opposite to that which you are trying to achieve. Our aim is to support the natural electrical processes of the body by working at its level of operation, NOT to override or destroy them.


The Role of ATP in Electron Potentials

Key Point:
These electrical potentials and currents are generated and maintained by ATP.

The majority of ATP is produced via the Electron Transport Chain (ETC). The ETC is a series of protein complexes and ubiquinone (or CoQ10) found in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The main product of the Citric acid or Krebs cycle is a molecule called NADH (the reduced form of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide or NAD+). NADH is a high energy molecule that contains 2 electrons. NADH donates these two electrons into the first complex of the ETC. The two electrons then flow down an energy gradient to be received by a relatively low energy Oxygen molecule in the last complex to form water. At different stages throughout the ETC as the electrons step down an energy level Protons are pumped across the inner membrane against the electrochemical gradient. It is the high concentration of protons in the inter-membrane space that drives the ATP synthase to synthesize ATP from ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and Pi (inorganic phosphate). So the number of ATP produced by the reduction of Oxygen from NADH is proportional to the number of electrons flowing down the ETC.

 

In diseased states there is most likely electron leakage out of the ETC resulting in a less efficient process. If by exposing the mitochondria to an electrical current that can flow electrons through the ETC without asking the mitochondria and the Krebs cycle to work any harder then we can improve the efficiency of ATP production. This has been backed up with work done by Ngok Cheng [20] who showed that ATP production was dramatically increased in a rat skin model as a result of passing micro-currents through those cells.


Overall Summary
From the moment of our creation, the electrical fields our cells and body generate govern the cellular decision making processes that direct the expression of our genes, our development and growth, the day to day operating of our cells, and our healing. It all starts at the level of the mitochondria (the powerhouse of the cell and therefore, the body), as it is the ATP that the mitochondria produces, powers the cells ability to generate the electrical fields.

The aim of F.R.T therefore, is to assist the mitochondria in maximizing their ability to produce ATP, this increases the cells ability to generate and maintain the electrical fields it uses to direct the healing process, which will result in an improved outcome for that person. Prof. Tim Watson describes this process as ‘Cellular Tickling’ [17].

“Cellular tickling is gently tickling the cells and cell walls with low energy fields producing membrane excitement, and therefore cellular excitement stimulating the cells into a higher level of activity. Rather than the electrical device doing the work, you are tapping into the natural resources and innate knowledge of the cells to do the work.”

This is what F.R.T Technologies is doing; tapping into the meridians of the body, flowing electrons through the body into the mitochondria, enabling them to produce more ATP, exciting the cells into generating their own electrical response which stimulates the healing process of the body.


References:
1) Robinson KR and Messerli MA. Electric embryos. In: Nerve Growth and Nerve Guidance, edited by McCaig CD. London: Portland, 1996.

2) Metcalf MEM and Borgens RB. Weak applied voltages interfere with amphibian morphogenesis and pattern. J Exp Zool 268: 322–338, 1994.

3) Hotary KB and Robinson KR. Endogenous electrical currents and voltage gradients in Xenopus embryos and the consequences of their disruption. Dev Biol 166: 789–800, 1994.

4) Hotary KB and Robinson KR. Endogenous electrical currents and the resultant voltage gradients in the chick embryo. Dev. Biology 140: 149–160, 1990.

5) Hotary KB and Robinson KR. Evidence for a role for endogenous electrical fields in chick embryo development. Development 114: 985–996, 1992.

6) Borgens RB and Shi R. Uncoupling histogenesis from morphogenesis in the vertebrate embryo by collapse of the transneural tube potential. Dev Dyn 203: 456–467, 1995.

7) Levin M, Thorlin T, Robinson KR, Nogi T, and Mercola M Asymmetries in H+/K+-ATPase and cell membrane potentials comprise a very early step in left-right patterning.. Cell 111: 77–89, 2002.

8) McCaig, C. D., Rajnicek, A. M., Song, B. & Zhao, M. Controlling cell behaviour
electrically: current views and future potential. Physiol. Rev. 85, 943–-978, 2005.

9) Barker AT, Jaffe LF, and Vanable JW Jr. The glabrous epidermis of cavies contains a powerful battery. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 242: R358–R366, 1982?

10) Chiang M, Robinson KR, and Vanable JW Jr. Electrical fields in the vicinity of epithelial wounds in the isolated bovine eye. Exp Eye Res 54: 999–1003, 1992.

11) Song B, Zhao M, Forrester JV, and McCaig CD. Electrical cues regulate the orientation and frequency of cell division and the rate of wound healing in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 13577–13582, 2002.

12) Song B, Zhao M, Forrester JV, and McCaig CD. Nerves are guided and nerve sprouting is stimulated by a naturally occurring electrical field in vivo. J Cell Sci 117: 4681–4690, 2004.

13) McCaig CD, Rajnicek AM, Song B, and Zhao M. Has electrical growth cone guidance found its potential? Trends Neurosci 25: 354–359, 2002.

14) Zhao M, Bai H, Wang E, Forrester JV, and McCaig CD. Electrical stimulation directly induces pre-angiogenic responses in vascular endothelial cells by signalling through VEGF receptors. J Cell Sci 117: 397–405, 2003.

15) Zhao M, Dick A, Forrester JV, and McCaig CD. Electric field directed cell motility involves up-regulated expression and asymmetric redistribution of the epidermal growth factor receptors and is enhanced by fibronectin and by laminin. Mol Biol Cell 10: 1259– 1276, 1999.

16) Sta Iglesia DD and Vanable JW Jr. Endogenous lateral electric fields around bovine corneal lesions are necessary for and can enhance normal rates of wound healing. Wound Rep Reg 6: 531– 542, 1998.

17) Prof Tim Watson. Current Concepts in Electrotherapy. School of Health & Emergency Professions, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts, Al109AB, United Kingdom. 2006. www.electrotherapy.org

18) Neher E. and Sakmann B. Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine 1991.see http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1991/press.html

19) Becker et al. The World of the Cell. 4th Edition. Published by ‘the Benjamin/Cummins Publishing Company’ p112

20) Ngok Cheng M.D., et al. The Effects of Electric Currents on ATP Generation, Protein Synthesis, and Membrane Transport in Rat Skin Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. Number 17. Nov-Dec 1982, pages 264 to 272.

Abstract

….https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/238463/?utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=HDW_MRKT_GBL_SUB_ADWO_PAI_DYNA_JOUR_X_PJ_GROUP3&gclid=Cj0KCQjwr-SSBhC9ARIsANhzu15K8_fy4cDTP1fH0te3UdtzEwb3pCa49d7uQhJcFbPvLWByBmVd7DkaAhyeEALw_wcB

Age-related changes in mitochondria are associated with decline in mitochondrial function. With advanced age, mitochondrial DNA volume, integrity and functionality decrease due to accumulation of mutations and oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In aged subjects, mitochondria are characterized by impaired function such as lowered oxidative capacity, reduced oxidative phosphorylation, decreased ATP production, significant increase in ROS generation, and diminished antioxidant defense. Mitochondrial biogenesis declines with age due to alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and inhibition of mitophagy, an autophagy process that removes dysfunctional mitochondria. Age-dependent abnormalities in mitochondrial quality control further weaken and impair mitochondrial function. In aged tissues, enhanced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis contributes to an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells. However, implementation of strategies such as caloric restriction and regular physical training may delay mitochondrial aging and attenuate the age-related phenotype in humans.

1. Introduction

Mitochondrial dysfunction, including decreased oxidative capacity and increased oxidative damage, is thought to substantially contribute to biological aging. A fundamental impact of mitochondria on aging has been suggested several decades ago. One concept considers aging as the result of an accumulation of damage to biomolecules due to the excessive production of highly toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). This concept was developed as the mitochondrial theory of aging since mitochondria are the major producers of ROS in the cell [1]. According to this theory, with age, mitochondria accumulate ROS-induced damage and become dysfunctional. With time, the function of cells declines causing aging and subsequent death. This concept was supported by a growing body of experimental data from animal models. For example, mice developed to have high mutation rates in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (so called mtDNA mutator mice) exhibited advanced aging phenotypes [2]. On the other hand, many recent studies have also provided data contradicting this theory. For example, the knockout of superoxide dismutase genes did not affect the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans [3]. Indeed, the role of mitochondria in aging seems to be very complex.

Mitochondria are subcellular self-autonomous organelles primarily responsible for the generation of energy and ATP synthesis. Besides this, mitochondria play an essential role in amino acid and lipid metabolism and regulation of apoptosis. Mitochondria have their own DNA; however, it encodes only 1% of the approximately 1,000 mitochondrial proteins. A vast majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded by nuclear DNA and are transported to mitochondria from the cytoplasm. Mitochondria may change in their numbers and mass due to the dynamic processes such as fission and mitophagy. Mitophagy is a specific form of autophagy that is required to degrade dysfunctional or damaged mitochondria [4].

In this review, we briefly consider the major changes in the function and dynamics of mitochondria that make them dysfunctional and contribute to aging.

2. Changes in Mitochondrial DNA in Aging

The mitochondrial theory of aging is based on the fact that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has a higher rate of mutation and less efficient repair machinery compared to nuclear DNA. The mutation rate of mtDNA is up to 15-fold higher than that of nuclear DNA [5]. Indeed, the accumulation of mutations in mtDNA may reach a critical threshold and cause adverse effects especially in mitochondria in which improperly functioning or damaged components of the respiratory chain need to be replaced. Mutations in mtDNA that alter the expression of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) complexes can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and accelerated ROS generation [6]. Development of the mtDNA mutator mouse, an animal with mutated mtDNA polymerase γ, highlighted the strong potential for mtDNA mutations in aging. These mice had a defective mechanism in their mtDNA proofreading during replication and resulted in the generation of a large number of new mutations and the development of premature aging phenotypes [2]. According to the “vicious cycle” concept, mtDNA mutations are accumulated exponentially and should be associated with marked burst in ROS production [7]. However, experiments involving mtDNA mutator mice have shown a linear progression in the accumulation of mtDNA mutations over the lifespan. There were no significant changes in ROS production and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the mtDNA mutator mice compared to the normal animals [8]. Indeed, these findings seriously compromise the “vicious cycle” theory that suggests that mtDNA mutations and impaired OxPhos but not ROS production are primarily responsible for premature aging in the mtDNA mutator mice.

In addition, due to the close proximity to the ROS-producing components of the respiratory chain and the absence of histones, mtDNA is highly prone to oxidative damage. In rat hepatocytes, the amount of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of DNA oxidative damage, was 16 times higher in mtDNA than in the nuclear DNA [9]. In the skeletal muscles and liver of rats, substantial age-related reductions in mtDNA copy number were observed [10]. These findings suggest that the amount and integrity of mtDNA may decline with age and lead to aberrant expression of electron transport chain proteins, thereby impairing the mechanism of OxPhos [5].

3. Mitochondrial ROS Production and Aging

The electron transport chain located in the inner mitochondrial membrane consists of four protein complexes and is coupled with ATP synthase, an ATP-producing enzyme. ROS are considered to be unwanted and toxic by-products of the mitochondrial electron transport system.

Due to their extreme reactivity, ROS seem to be a major mediator of age-associated cellular damage. ROS can also act as signaling molecules [11]. Interestingly, low doses of ROS could actually promote longevity while high doses, in contrast, shorten the lifespan of C. elegans [12]. A paradoxical increase in longevity was observed in mitochondrial respiration mutants of C. elegans at elevated levels of ROS. ROS were shown to activate hypoxia-induced factor-1 (HIF-1), a transcription factor associated with prolonged lifespan [12]. Mild inhibition of mitochondrial respiration was shown to extend lifespan in many species such as C. elegans, Drosophila, and mice, suggesting that an increase in longevity by moderate suppression of mitochondrial respiration is evolutionarily preserved.

Antioxidant enzymes involved in ROS inactivation provide protection against oxidative stress. Indeed, defects in the activity of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes may increase oxidative stress. Mice containing a transgene of a mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme such as Mn-dependent superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) or catalase showed increased longevity [1314] while mice lacking Mn-SOD died from premature death associated with severe mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration [15]. Mice deficient in p66shc, a protein involved in mitochondrial ROS production independent from OxPhos mechanism, displayed advanced resistance to oxidative stress and an increase in lifespan by 30% [16].

Enzymatic changes may affect mitochondrial oxidative capacity and ATP synthesis. In humans, ATP-producing capacity decreases by 8% per decade [5]. Similarly, elderly people were found to have a 1.5-fold reduction in oxidative capacity per mitochondrial volume and a 1.5-fold reduction per muscle volume [17]. Age-dependent decline in mitochondrial function may result from low physical activity because when physical activity is compared between old and young people, most studies failed to find any significant correlations between age, mitochondrial respiration, and ATP flux [1819].

4. Age-Dependent Changes in Mitochondrial Dynamics

The mitochondrial dynamics include the movement of mitochondria along the cytoskeleton, the regulation of mitochondrial architecture, and connectivity mediated by fusion/fission events [20]. This dynamic network is essential to maintain normal mitochondrial functions and participates in fundamental processes including aging. Mitochondrial biogenesis is the expansion of mitochondria through mechanisms involving growth (increase in mitochondrial mass) and division (increase of mitochondrial number).

With advanced age, the mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle was shown to decline gradually [21] and may suggest a decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis. The decline in mitochondrial biogenesis may result from an age-dependent reduction in levels of PGC-1α, a key regulator of biogenesis [22]. In aged mice, overexpression of PGC-1α in skeletal muscles was associated with reduced sarcopenia and an improvement of mitochondrial function [23].

Impaired balance between fission and fusion events may also be related to age-dependent decline in mitochondrial biogenesis. Fission is important for maintaining mitochondrial quality and integrity since it is involved in the selection of dysfunctional mitochondria. Defective mitochondria fail to function properly and have an impaired oxidative capacity skewed toward increased ROS production. These mitochondria are selectively removed by mitophagy, an autophagy-lysosome system that degrades dysfunctional mitochondria through fusion with lysosomes [4]. With age, mitophagy was observed to decline [24]. This decline is associated with an accumulation of damaged mitochondria, advanced oxidative stress, and increased apoptosis [25].

5. Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway and Aging

Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis is induced in response to proapoptotic stimuli or in the case of severe failure in OxPhos. Briefly, a caspase-dependent mechanism of mitochondrial apoptosis is accompanied by the release of cytochrome c and other factors from mitochondria, which then triggers the activation of a cascade of irreversible apoptotic events mediated by caspases. In the caspase-independent pathway, the release of endonuclease G and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) by mitochondria leads to the degradation of nuclear DNA [26].

Apoptosis was shown to increase significantly with age as reflected by an age-dependent gain in the percentage of apoptotic cells [27] and significant upregulation of caspase-independent proapoptotic pathway in aged rats [28] and elderly people [29]. Since no significant changes in the expression of caspases in older subjects were observed [2930], the caspase-dependent mechanism is unlikely to be activated with advanced age.

6. Genetic and Structural Alterations of Mitochondria in Atherogenesis

Increasing age is well known as an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis [3132], and, therefore, according to a well-established point of view, atherosclerosis can be considered as a disease of aging [3132]. Premature or accelerated vascular aging and atherosclerosis can be associated with dysfunction of mitochondria [3334].

It is well known that in human pathology, a number of diseases are associated with somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) [3536]. Even though mitochondrial dysfunction leads to increased oxidative stress, the role of mitochondrial mutations in atherosclerosis has not received much attention so far [3334]. In a recent study we analyzed the association of mitochondrial genetic variation with the severity of carotid atherosclerosis (as assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and the presence of coronary heart disease (CHD)) and found that heteroplasmy for several mutations in the mtDNA in leukocytes, including C3256T, T3336C, G12315A, G13513A, G14459A, G14846A, and G15059A mutations, were significantly associated with both the severity of carotid atherosclerosis and the presence of CHD [37]. Electron-microscopic analysis of atherosclerotic lesions has also revealed a high variability in the ultrastructural appearance of mitochondria in human aortic atherosclerotic lesions compared with the appearance of mitochondria in the normal parts of the aortic intima (Figure 1) [38]. This prompted us to hypothesize that the structural variations in the appearance of mitochondria might reflect the existence of somatic mutations in the human mitochondrial genome which could be a determinant of the development of atherosclerotic lesions [38]. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the levels of heteroplasmy for several mitochondrial mutations previously proposed to be associated with different types of atherosclerotic lesions [38]. The homogenates of unaffected aortic intimae and lipofibrous plaques of human aortas were compared to reveal the average level of heteroplasmy for A1555G, C3256T, T3336T, G12315A, G14459A, and G15059A mutations of human mitochondrial genome [38]. It has been found that at least four mutations of mitochondrial genome, namely, A1555G in MT-RNR1 gene, C3256T in MT-TL1 gene, G12315A in MT-TL2 gene, and G15059A in MT-CYB gene, have significantly higher prevalence and mean value in lipofibrous plaques as compared to nonatherosclerotic intima [38]. The findings that somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome are associated with the development of atherosclerosis [3738] should encourage further exploration of the concept that mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy might be used as a biomarker of atherogenesis.

Could aging better be as simple as popping a supplement?
Spoiler alert: The health of your cells declines as you age, which could affect your overall wellbeing as each birthday rolls around. But for those of us who never think about our bodies down to this level of minutiae (*raises hand*), a new field of research is booming: cellular health, and its link to your “healthspan” (AKA the healthy, functional years of your life).
“Your cells are the building blocks for every muscle, tissue, and organ in your body,” says Ryan Dellinger, PhD, Director of Scientific Affairs Elysium Health, a company leading the charge in consumer health products designed to proactively support health. That all starts with Basis, a supplement that works on the cellular level. “It is important to remember that you are your cells, so the first signs of aging actually start there.”

“It is important to remember that you are your cells, so the first signs of aging actually start there.”

And there’s a reason why it’s one of our 2018 Wellness Trends. If you can maintain the health of cells as you age, the thinking goes, you can support the health of your entire body. Led by Leonard Guarente, PhD, Director of the Glenn Laboratory for the Science of Aging at MIT, Elysium Health’s mission is to shift the conversation from lifespan to healthspan (in short, quality over length).


The scientists behind Elysium Health tapped 25 years of research, much of it from Guarente’s lab, to develop Basis. With a rockstar scientific advisory board (not to mention research partners at Harvard and Oxford) they’re laying the groundwork for future products designed to target the fundamentals of aging. Here’s what you need to know.

Keep reading for three reasons why it’s time to prioritize your cellular health.
Elysium Health Basis
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It supports your circadian rhythm and DNA health
When experts say cell health declines as you age, one thing they really mean is your NAD+ levels drop. “NAD+ is a coenzyme that is necessary in all living cells,” Dr. Dellinger says. And NAD+ is a key player in many key cellular functions, from energy production to circadian rhythm regulation to DNA health.


“NAD+ is also crucial for the function of sirtuins, a fascinating family of proteins that are associated with health and longevity,” says Dr. Guarante (psst: his lab actually discovered the connection between sirtuins and longevity). “Sirtuins are emerging as key players in long-term health; continued stimulation of these molecules with NAD+ or sirtuin-activating compounds has been proposed as one approach to combat aging.”

Research shows that NAD+ levels decline with age. “This means that cellular processes that rely on NAD+ may not be able to function as efficiently as we get older,” Dr. Dellinger adds—but this is where Basis comes in. The daily supplement has been proven in a human study to increase those declining levels of NAD+ by an average of 40 percent.

Elysium Health Basis
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It could increase your “healthspan”
“In the past 20 years, there have been landmark scientific discoveries—from genes that control the aging process to substantive data showing how we might be able to proactively intervene,” says Eric Marcotulli, CEO of Elysium Health. “We can now—for the first time ever—consciously take control of our cellular health.”

It’s some of these discoveries that form the scientific underpinning of Basis. “Methods to restore NAD+ are emerging as viable approaches to aging well and supporting our healthspan,” Dr. Dellinger says. According to a study published last year, participants who took Basis (which is a combo of sirtuin-activating and NAD+-boosting ingredients nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene) regularly saw a significant increase in NAD+ levels.

Elysium Health Basis
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It’s a natural addition to your wellness routine
Energy and sleep cycles are a few of the areas Elysium Health converts report feeling most satisfied—which coincidentally are two areas you strive to tackle with your wellness game.


In fact, incorporating a cellular-health supplement dovetails nicely with a regular healthy routine. Staying hydrated (since cells are primarily made up of water), consistent exercise (which helps to produce more energy in cells), and avoiding free radical damage (with an antioxidant-rich diet) are all things you might already be doing, and might not know are secret cellular health essentials—and an investment in your long-term health.

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To learn more about Elysium Health, keep up-to-date on Medium

In partnership with Elysium Health

Top photo: Stocksy/Lumina

TAGS: HOLISTIC TREATMENT

Your Healthiest Relationship

SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR USING ELECTRICAL CURRENTS IN HEALING
Key Points:
Electrical potentials and electrical currents occur at all levels within the body; from the body as a whole, down to an intracellular level.
Electrical potentials and electrical currents direct and control cell behavior.
These electrical potentials and currents are generated and maintained by Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).
ATP Synthesis is generated by electron flow.

Electrical Potentials and Currents in the Body
Key Point:
Electrical potentials and the resulting Electrical currents occur at all levels within the body; from the body as a whole, down to an intracellular level.

We all know that electrical currents exist in our bodies; with the measurement of the electrical currents in the heart by an ECG, in the brain by an EEG, in the peripheral nerves by nerve conduction studies, and in muscles by an EMG.

There are also a variety of devices out on the market now that measure the electrical currents running through our body’s meridian systems, although these are not routinely recognized or used within the orthodox medical system.
F.R.T Technolgy are thought to utilize the recipients’ meridian system to deliver its current (or electrons).
The electrical currents occurring within individual organ systems and at a cellular level are driven by electrical potentials created by the cells and organs. Two examples of these are ‘Cell Wall Membrane Potentials’, and ‘Transepithelial Potentials (TEP’s) i.e. this is an electrical potential across an epithelial layer such as the skin. Overall, our bodies are thought to be more negatively charged on the outside than at our centre. An Electrical Potential is the difference in charge (positive [+ve] and negative [-ve]) between 2 areas, e.g. the +ve and –ve terminals of a fully charged battery. It is the electrical potentials that drive the currents just like a battery drives the current around a circuit. The cells create these electrical potentials by ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) driven pumps within [on] the cell walls. These ATP driven pumps actively pump positively charged ions across the cell wall resulting in a greater number of positively charged ions on the outside of the cell wall, or on one side of a membrane than the other. This creates a positive area and the resulting negatively charged area or an electrical potential.

 


These electrical potentials are critical in wound healing process and in the creation of ATP as described later. It is at these deeper and more subtle electrical levels in the body that the EPRT devices are having an effect.

The Role of Electrical Potentials and Electrical Currents at the cellular level
Key Point:
Electrical Potentials and Electrical Currents Direct and Control Cell Behavior.

To help understand these electrical potentials and electrical currents we are going to examine their role in three areas:

A series of studies [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] measuring electrical potentials and electrical currents were carried out on Axolotl, Xenopus, and Chick embryos. All studies described electrical potentials and electrical currents. The electrical potentials were found to run in specific and uniform directions; from rostrocaudal (head to tail) and mediolateral (midline to edge). The Electrical currents flowed out of specific areas of the embryos, and these areas were found to be the areas of major tissue movement. The electrical current densities were found to be in the order of 100uA/cm2.

Figure 1 (above).Spatial differences in the transepithelial potential difference (TEP) generate electric fields within intact embryos. A: TEP measurements made using glass voltage-sensing electrodes. The TEP of axolotl embryos was measured relative to a bath ground electrode at the time of early neural tube formation (stage 16) in three positions on the same embryo. Measurement sites are shown in B: a, at the rostral end of the neural groove; b, at the lateral edge of the neural fold; c, at the lateral epithelium; d, halfway along the neural groove; e, at the caudal end of the neural groove near the blastopore. The TEP at each site was positive on the inside of the embryo. [Data from Shi and Borgens (180).] B: TEP measurements made at sites a, b, and c in 8 embryos demonstrating that the TEP is highest in the center of the neural groove (a) and lowest at the lateral edge of the neural ridge (b). Measurements from 20 embryos at site a, d, and e indicates a rostral to caudal TEP gradient. [Data from Shi and Borgens (180); embryo in B and D modified from Borgens and Shi (26).] C: an artist’s impression of the spatial differences of TEP in a stage 16 axolotl embryo. Colors represent the magnitude of the TEP. Yellow is highest, and purple is lowest. The slope of the line indicates the magnitude of the resulting local electric field in the subepidermal tissues. [Modified from Shi and Borgens (180).] D: current loops detected using a non-invasive vibrating electrode. The electrode vibrates rapidly near the embryo in an electrically conductive medium (e.g., pond water). The stainless steel electrode has a small voltage sensing platinum ball at its tip, which is vibrated rapidly over a distance of _20 _m. The electrode (red) is shown at the extremes of its vibration. The voltage is determined at each point, and the current density at the measurement site is calculated using known values for distance from the embryo and the resistivity of the bathing medium. As would be predicted from the spatial variation of TEP illustrated in A and B, there is outward current at the lateral edges of the neural ridges, inward current at the center of the neural groove, inward current at the lateral skin, and a large outward current at the blastopore.
The studies then disrupted the naturally occurring (endogenous) electrical potentials and currents by either enhancing them (hyperpolarising) or reducing them (depolarising) and examined the effects on the embryo’s. The results were astounding.

Results:
The embryo’s exposed to electrical fields reported 87-95% abnormality rates, while the control embryos reported 11-17% abnormality rates. The abnormalities seen consisted of; absence of cranium, loss of one or both eyes, misshapen head, abnormal brachial development, incomplete closure of neural folds, incomplete notocord development, and cells were seen to migrate out of the embryo and developed autonomously in the dish while other cells that had differentiated were reduced to a formless mass of apparently dedifferentiated cells. They also showed that the axis of cell division can be determined by applied and endogenous Electrical Fields.
In summary, endogenous electrical fields with normal polarity and magnitude are essential for normal development and the pattern of electrical potentials within embryos provide a gross template or blueprint for the development of the embryos guiding differentiation and movement of the cells within the embryo.

It has been known for over 150 yrs that endogenous electrical currents played a part in wound healing, with a German physiologist Emil Du-Bois Reymond measuring a 1uA current flowing out of a cut in his own finger!

These electrical currents arise as a result of a standing electrical potential that is constant and maintained across the epithelial layer of the skin. This electrical potential is called a ‘Transepithelial Potential’ or TEP’s. On the surface layer of the epithelium there is passive influx of positively charged sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions. On the basal cell membrane there are Na+/K+ ATP ases that actively pump Na+ out of the cell into the matrix. This results in a higher concentration of Na+ inside the skin relative to the outer surface creating a TEP. Intact skin therefore represents a biological battery. This is powered by ATP.

Injury currents occur when there is a break in the epithelial layer resulting in an out-flowing of Na+ ions from the inner layer of the skin (high concentration) to the outer layers of the skin (lower concentration). This out flow of positively charged ions is an electrical current, and this electrical current creates a bioelectrical field. Electrical fields are important as having both magnitude and direction. They can impose directional movement on chemicals in the extracellular environment, on receptor molecules, on cells and on tissues [8]. This explains how the great German physiologist Emil Du-Bois Reymond measured a 1uA current flowing out of his own cut finger in 1843, and Robert Beckers observations of the currents flowing out of the wounds of amputated salamander tails and limbs in the 1960’s and 1970’s.

The instant a wound is created a Direct Current Electrical Field (DC EF) is set up. McCaig claims that “In evolutionary terms, membrane resealing to close an electrical leak is among the most primitive activities that cells undertake.”

So what do these electrical currents mean in terms of the healing process?
Two studies [9,10] looking at wound induced electrical fields (EF) in bovine cornea and guinea pig and human skin not only proved the existence of electrical fields which dropped exponentially with the distance from the wound, but also came to the following conclusions:


All cell behaviors within approximately 500um of a wound edge in skin and cornea take place within a standing gradient voltage. These include epithelial cell migration, epithelial cell division, nerve sprouting, leukocyte infiltration, and endothelial cell remodeling with associated angiogenesis i.e. the whole gamut of cellular responses to injury.
Because the voltage gradient dropped exponentially with the distance from the wound any cell behaviors governed by the endogenous EF would be regulated differently with the distance from the wound.
Increasing or decreasing the TEP would inevitably increase or decrease the voltage gradient profile at the wound.
Studies [11, 12, and 13] were then done on rats cornea’s manipulating the endogenous EF’s by either enhancing or reducing the endogenous EF’s or by applying exogenous electrical currents.
These studies looked at;
i. Healing rates,
ii. Proliferation of cells,
iii. Axis of cell division,
iv. And nerve growth.

Results:
i. The direction and rate of migrating epithelial cells into the wound was affected by the EF. Enhancing the EF healed the corneal wound 2.5 times faster while reducing the EF slowed the rate of healing to 18% of normal.

ii. The proliferation of epithelial cells. Similarly there was a 40% increase in cell divisions within 600um of the wound edge in the corneas whose EF was enhanced, and a 27% suppression of mitoses in the corneas whose EF was reduced

iii. The axis of cell division. It was found that in the dividing cells, the mitotic spindle aligns parallel to the EF, and the cleavage occurred perpendicular to this. The orientation of the dividing cells reduced the further away from the wound edge, as the strength of the EF reduces. Again cells in an enhanced EF roughly doubled the proportion of dividing cells whose cleavage plans were perpendicular to the EF, and corneas treated in a reduced EF

iv. The proportion of nerves sprouting at the wound, and the direction of growth of nerve sprouts towards the wound edge. The corneas in an enhanced EF showed neurite growth enhanced with more sprouts appearing, they appeared earlier, and orientated towards the wound edge earlier. Reducing the EF did not prevent early collateral nerve sprouting, but the nerve growth was not directed towards the wound edge.

v. EFs were found to stimulate secretion in the extracellular space of growth factors (VEGF) from endothelial cells [14].

vi. EFs were found to upregulate expression of growth factor receptors (EGFR) on corneal epithelial cells [15].

vii. In an applied DC EF with the cathode at the wound edge the wound healed faster, but with the anode at the wound edge the wound not only failed to close but actually opened up [16].

It was concluded that because electrical signals arise immediately in a wound and control multiple cell behaviors in vivo, the physiological EF may orchestrate an integrated response of interdependent cell behaviors that includes the epithelial and nerve interactions essential for wound healing. Consequently, the EF is at the head of a hierarchy of cues that interact to promote wound healing [8].

 


All cells have an electrical potential across their cell membrane that makes the outside of the cell relatively positively charged compared to the inside of the cell. This again represents a biological battery. The charge across a healthy cell membrane is approximately -70mV. To put this into perspective, if the membrane is 7-10nm thick then the corresponding voltage is 10 million volts per meter [17]. Maintenance of this cell membrane electrical potential is essential for the normal workings of the cell.

This amazing membrane potential is generated and maintained by the disproportionate pumping of sodium ions (Na+) out of the cell and potassium.

ions (K+) into the cell. Three (3) Na+ are pumped out of the cell for every two (2) K+ pumped into the cell. This results in a greater number Na+ outside the cell compared to the number of K+ inside the cell and therefore a greater positive charge outside the cell. This pump that lives in the cell wall is called Na+/K+ ATPase, and as the named suggests is powered by ATP. Interestingly Magnesium also plays an integral role in the process binding onto the Na+/K+ ATPase pump with ATP.

 

There are a multitude of other ion channels in the cell wall membranes that transfer ions from one side of the cell wall to the other. While not powered by ATP they are affected by the electrical potential of the cell membrane (Voltage gradient) and also produce electrical currents of their own. These ion channels open or close by changing their shape as a result of the activation of a receptor part of the molecule or changes in the cell wall membrane potential. They also contain a voltage sensitive gate which as the name suggests opens or closes with changes in voltage gradients (or electrical potentials).

Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann [18] won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1991, “for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”. They essentially devised a method of measuring the electrical currents in a single ion channel in the cell wall. What they found was there existed electrical currents in the range of picoAmpere occurring inside the ion channels that corresponded with the opening and closing of that ion channel.
In summary, we can see that not only do electrical potentials and electrical currents exist in cell wall membranes, but they control and direct the membranes ability to transfer ions across the cell wall membrane, the influx and efflux of nutrients and toxins, and so as a result influencing the internal and external environment and overall health of the cell.


Conclusion

In conclusion we can see that the body generates and maintains electrical potentials at the cell wall, across epithelial layers, as well that through the body as a whole. That the more subtle electrical potentials and currents control cell behavior in embryonic development, in wound healing, and within the cell in the cell wall membranes.

If you are working to change cellular, organ behavior or patterns with nutrients, herbs, or drugs, you do not have a hope if the electrical message being generated at a cellular level is opposite to that which you are trying to achieve. Our aim is to support the natural electrical processes of the body by working at its level of operation, NOT to override or destroy them.


The Role of ATP in Electron Potentials

Key Point:
These electrical potentials and currents are generated and maintained by ATP.

The majority of ATP is produced via the Electron Transport Chain (ETC). The ETC is a series of protein complexes and ubiquinone (or CoQ10) found in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The main product of the Citric acid or Krebs cycle is a molecule called NADH (the reduced form of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide or NAD+). NADH is a high energy molecule that contains 2 electrons. NADH donates these two electrons into the first complex of the ETC. The two electrons then flow down an energy gradient to be received by a relatively low energy Oxygen molecule in the last complex to form water. At different stages throughout the ETC as the electrons step down an energy level Protons are pumped across the inner membrane against the electrochemical gradient. It is the high concentration of protons in the inter-membrane space that drives the ATP synthase to synthesize ATP from ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and Pi (inorganic phosphate). So the number of ATP produced by the reduction of Oxygen from NADH is proportional to the number of electrons flowing down the ETC.

 

In diseased states there is most likely electron leakage out of the ETC resulting in a less efficient process. If by exposing the mitochondria to an electrical current that can flow electrons through the ETC without asking the mitochondria and the Krebs cycle to work any harder then we can improve the efficiency of ATP production. This has been backed up with work done by Ngok Cheng [20] who showed that ATP production was dramatically increased in a rat skin model as a result of passing micro-currents through those cells.


Overall Summary
From the moment of our creation, the electrical fields our cells and body generate govern the cellular decision making processes that direct the expression of our genes, our development and growth, the day to day operating of our cells, and our healing. It all starts at the level of the mitochondria (the powerhouse of the cell and therefore, the body), as it is the ATP that the mitochondria produces, powers the cells ability to generate the electrical fields.

The aim of F.R.T therefore, is to assist the mitochondria in maximizing their ability to produce ATP, this increases the cells ability to generate and maintain the electrical fields it uses to direct the healing process, which will result in an improved outcome for that person. Prof. Tim Watson describes this process as ‘Cellular Tickling’ [17].

“Cellular tickling is gently tickling the cells and cell walls with low energy fields producing membrane excitement, and therefore cellular excitement stimulating the cells into a higher level of activity. Rather than the electrical device doing the work, you are tapping into the natural resources and innate knowledge of the cells to do the work.”

This is what F.R.T Technologies is doing; tapping into the meridians of the body, flowing electrons through the body into the mitochondria, enabling them to produce more ATP, exciting the cells into generating their own electrical response which stimulates the healing process of the body.


References:
1) Robinson KR and Messerli MA. Electric embryos. In: Nerve Growth and Nerve Guidance, edited by McCaig CD. London: Portland, 1996.

2) Metcalf MEM and Borgens RB. Weak applied voltages interfere with amphibian morphogenesis and pattern. J Exp Zool 268: 322–338, 1994.

3) Hotary KB and Robinson KR. Endogenous electrical currents and voltage gradients in Xenopus embryos and the consequences of their disruption. Dev Biol 166: 789–800, 1994.

4) Hotary KB and Robinson KR. Endogenous electrical currents and the resultant voltage gradients in the chick embryo. Dev. Biology 140: 149–160, 1990.

5) Hotary KB and Robinson KR. Evidence for a role for endogenous electrical fields in chick embryo development. Development 114: 985–996, 1992.

6) Borgens RB and Shi R. Uncoupling histogenesis from morphogenesis in the vertebrate embryo by collapse of the transneural tube potential. Dev Dyn 203: 456–467, 1995.

7) Levin M, Thorlin T, Robinson KR, Nogi T, and Mercola M Asymmetries in H+/K+-ATPase and cell membrane potentials comprise a very early step in left-right patterning.. Cell 111: 77–89, 2002.

8) McCaig, C. D., Rajnicek, A. M., Song, B. & Zhao, M. Controlling cell behaviour
electrically: current views and future potential. Physiol. Rev. 85, 943–-978, 2005.

9) Barker AT, Jaffe LF, and Vanable JW Jr. The glabrous epidermis of cavies contains a powerful battery. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 242: R358–R366, 1982?

10) Chiang M, Robinson KR, and Vanable JW Jr. Electrical fields in the vicinity of epithelial wounds in the isolated bovine eye. Exp Eye Res 54: 999–1003, 1992.

11) Song B, Zhao M, Forrester JV, and McCaig CD. Electrical cues regulate the orientation and frequency of cell division and the rate of wound healing in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 13577–13582, 2002.

12) Song B, Zhao M, Forrester JV, and McCaig CD. Nerves are guided and nerve sprouting is stimulated by a naturally occurring electrical field in vivo. J Cell Sci 117: 4681–4690, 2004.

13) McCaig CD, Rajnicek AM, Song B, and Zhao M. Has electrical growth cone guidance found its potential? Trends Neurosci 25: 354–359, 2002.

14) Zhao M, Bai H, Wang E, Forrester JV, and McCaig CD. Electrical stimulation directly induces pre-angiogenic responses in vascular endothelial cells by signalling through VEGF receptors. J Cell Sci 117: 397–405, 2003.

15) Zhao M, Dick A, Forrester JV, and McCaig CD. Electric field directed cell motility involves up-regulated expression and asymmetric redistribution of the epidermal growth factor receptors and is enhanced by fibronectin and by laminin. Mol Biol Cell 10: 1259– 1276, 1999.

16) Sta Iglesia DD and Vanable JW Jr. Endogenous lateral electric fields around bovine corneal lesions are necessary for and can enhance normal rates of wound healing. Wound Rep Reg 6: 531– 542, 1998.

17) Prof Tim Watson. Current Concepts in Electrotherapy. School of Health & Emergency Professions, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts, Al109AB, United Kingdom. 2006. www.electrotherapy.org

18) Neher E. and Sakmann B. Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine 1991.see http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1991/press.html

19) Becker et al. The World of the Cell. 4th Edition. Published by ‘the Benjamin/Cummins Publishing Company’ p112

20) Ngok Cheng M.D., et al. The Effects of Electric Currents on ATP Generation, Protein Synthesis, and Membrane Transport in Rat Skin Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. Number 17. Nov-Dec 1982, pages 264 to 272.

 

Research

Allergy –  effective therapy for the treatment of patients suffering from symptoms of allergy/sensitivity disease (2002)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11302781

Gastrointestinal  Pain – bioresonance therapy can markedly improve non-organic gastro-intestinal complaints. (2006)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16582548

Rheumatism – bioresonance therapy activates nonspecific protective mechanisms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (2002)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12511993

Rheumatic disease – therapy with electronically stored nosodes is effective in patients with rheumatic diseases. (2007)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17971670

Sources:

1. “Science Measures the Human Energy Field.” The International Center for Reiki Training. Reiki.org.

2. Alvino, Gloria. “The Human Energy Field in Relation to Science, Consciousness, and Health.” Arun Gowry.

3. Hunt, Valerie V. “The Human Energy Field and Sound Therapy.” ArizonaEnergy.org.

4. Alvino, Gloria. “The Human Energy Field in Relation to Science, Consciousness, and Health.” Arun Gowry.

Clinical outcomes of a diagnostic and treatment protocol in allergy/sensitivity patients – PubMed

 
[Placebo-controlled study of the effects of a standardized MORA bioresonance therapy on functional gastrointestinal complaints] – PubMed
 
[Study on the clinical effectiveness of electronically stored nosodes from tooth diseases and articular rheumatism on persons with rheumatic diseases] – PubMed
 
Science Measures the Human Energy Field
 
Electrodermal Activity at Acupoints: Literature Review and Recommendations for Reporting Clinical Trials
 
 
EDS Related Research Abstracts – Asyra – Advanced Bioenergetic Health Screening System

Jeppsen-Osguthorpe Study – KIPDF.COM
Studija za stitnu zlezdu
 
https://organichealthsystems.com/how-it-works/   odlicna stranica o energijirezonanci i testieanju
 
Agreement for Remote Clients – Organic Health Systems
Tekst koji se daje kkijentima da potpisu pre koriscenja programa
 
Organic Health Systems – No one does energy medicine like we do!
Tekstovi za blog na engleskom
 
  • Mitochondrial heath…TEST KOJI MERI I ANALIZIRA …https://en.humanmetabolome.com/services/targeted-assays/?gclid=Cj0KCQjwr-SSBhC9ARIsANhzu14yiNYA4OKBRxZf3k_0I4fDGnmN_vTSjkCgD4sRTWuG0Gxte10XzhwaAtvjEALw_wcB

SIMILAR PRODUCTS

ORIGINALAN SAJT...https://www.qrs.com/

ODLIČAN LINK.…https://www.qrs.com/quantum_medicine.html

MEDJUNARODNI PATENT

  • Mitochondrial heath…TEST KOJI MERI I ANALIZIRA …https://en.humanmetabolome.com/services/targeted-assays/?gclid=Cj0KCQjwr-SSBhC9ARIsANhzu14yiNYA4OKBRxZf3k_0I4fDGnmN_vTSjkCgD4sRTWuG0Gxte10XzhwaAtvjEALw_wcB
How the resting membrane potential is established in a neuron

Key points:

  • A resting (non-signaling) neuron has a voltage across its membrane called the resting membrane potential, or simply the resting potential.
  • The resting potential is determined by concentration gradients of ions across the membrane and by membrane permeability to each type of ion.
  • In a resting neuron, there are concentration gradients across the membrane for start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript. Ions move down their gradients via channels, leading to a separation of charge that creates the resting potential.
  • The membrane is much more permeable to start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript than to start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript, so the resting potential is close to the equilibrium potential of start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript (the potential that would be generated by start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript if it were the only ion in the system).

Introduction

Suppose you have a dead frog. (Yes, that’s kind of gross, but let’s just imagine it for a second.) What would happen if you applied an electrical stimulus to the nerve that feeds the frog’s leg? Creepily enough, the dead leg would kick!
The Italian scientist Luigi Galvani discovered this fun fact back in the 1700s, somewhat by accident during a frog dissection. Today, we know that the frog’s leg kicks because neurons (nerve cells) carry information via electrical signals.

How do neurons in a living organism produce electrical signals? At a basic level, neurons generate electrical signals through brief, controlled changes in the permeability of their cell membrane to particular ions (such as start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript). Before we look in detail at how these signals are generated, we first need to understand how membrane permeability works in a resting neuron (one that is not sending or receiving electrical signals). 

In this article, we’ll see how a neuron establishes and maintains a stable voltage across its membrane – that is, a resting membrane potential.

The resting membrane potential

Imagine taking two electrodes and placing one on the outside and the other on the inside of the plasma membrane of a living cell. If you did this, you would measure an electrical potential difference, or voltage, between the electrodes. This electrical potential difference is called the membrane potential.
 

Diagram of a voltmeter measuring the membrane potential. One electrode is outside the cell. The other electrode is in the interior of the cell. The voltmeter shows a -70 mV voltage across the membrane.
_Image modified from “How neurons communicate: Figure 2,” by OpenStax College, Biology (CC BY 4.0)._
Like distance, potential difference is measured relative to a reference point. In the case of distance, the reference point might be a city. For instance, we can say that Boston is 190 start text, m, i, l, e, s, end text northeast, but only if we know that our reference point is New York City.
For a cell’s membrane potential, the reference point is the outside of the cell. In most resting neurons, the potential difference across the membrane is about 30 to 90 start text, m, V, end text (a start text, m, V, end text is 1, slash, 1000 of a volt), with the inside of the cell more negative than the outside. That is, neurons have a resting membrane potential (or simply, resting potential) of about minus, 30 start text, m, V, end text to minus, 90 start text, m, V, end text.
Because there is a potential difference across the cell membrane, the membrane is said to be polarized.
  • If the membrane potential becomes more positive than it is at the resting potential, the membrane is said to be depolarized.
  • If the membrane potential becomes more negative than it is at the resting potential, the membrane is said to be hyperpolarized.
 

Diagrams of voltmeters with one electrode inside the cell and one in the fluid outside of the cell. The first voltmeter shows hyperpolarization: it reads -80 mV. The second voltmeter shows the resting potential: it reads -70 mV. The third voltmeter shows depolarization: it reads +40 mV.
_Image modified from “How neurons communicate: Figure 2,” by OpenStax College, Biology (CC BY 4.0)._
All of the electrical signals that neurons use to communicate are either depolarizations or hyperpolarizations from the resting membrane potential.

Where does the resting membrane potential come from?

The resting membrane potential is determined by the uneven distribution of ions (charged particles) between the inside and the outside of the cell, and by the different permeability of the membrane to different types of ions.

Types of ions found in neurons

In neurons and their surrounding fluid, the most abundant ions are:
  • Positively charged (cations): Sodium (start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript) and potassium (start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript)
  • Negatively charged (anions): Chloride (start text, C, l, end text, start superscript, minus, end superscript) and organic anions
In most neurons, start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and organic anions (such as those found in proteins and amino acids) are present at higher concentrations inside the cell than outside. In contrast, start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, C, l, end text, start superscript, minus, end superscript are usually present at higher concentrations outside the cell. This means there are stable concentration gradients across the membrane for all of the most abundant ion types.
 

This diagram represents the relative concentrations of various ion types inside and outside of a neuron.
  • K+ is more concentrated inside than outside the cell.
  • Organic anions are more concentrated inside than outside the cell.
  • Cl- is more concentrated outside than inside the cell.
  • Na+ is more concentrated outside than inside the cell.

How ions cross the membrane

Because they are charged, ions can’t pass directly through the hydrophobic (“water-fearing”) lipid regions of the membrane. Instead, they have to use specialized channel proteins that provide a hydrophilic (“water-loving”) tunnel across the membrane. Some channels, known as leak channels, are open in resting neurons. Others are closed in resting neurons and only open in response to a signal.
 

Ion channels. The channels extend from one side of the plasma membrane to the other and have a tunnel through the middle. The tunnel allows ions to cross. One of the channels shown allows Na+ ions to cross and is a sodium channel. The other channel allows K+ ions to cross and is a potassium channel. The channels simply give a path for the ions across the membrane, allowing them to move down any electrochemical gradients that may exist. The channels do not actively move ions from one side to the other of the membrane.

Some ion channels are highly selective for one type of ion, but others let various kinds of ions pass through. Ion channels that mainly allow start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript to pass are called potassium channels, and ion channels that mainly allow start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript to pass are called sodium channels

In neurons, the resting membrane potential depends mainly on movement of start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript through potassium leak channels. Let’s see how this works.

What happens if only start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript can cross the membrane?

The membrane potential of a resting neuron is primarily determined by the movement of start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript ions across the membrane. So, let’s get a feeling for how the membrane potential works by seeing what would happen in a case where only start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript can cross the membrane.
We’ll start out with start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript at a higher concentration inside the cell than in the surrounding fluid, just as for a regular neuron. (Other ions are also present, including anions that counterbalance the positive charge on start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript, but they will not be able to cross the membrane in our example.)
 

Starting state:
Zero voltage across the membrane, as measured by a voltmeter with one electrode inside and one electrode outside the cell. The inside of the cell and the outside of the cell are separated by a membrane with potassium channels, which are initially closed. There is a higher concentration of potassium ions on the inside of the cell than on the outside. Each potassium ion (on either side of the membrane) is balanced by an anion, so the system as a whole is electrically neutral.
If potassium channels in the membrane open, start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript will begin to move down its concentration gradient and out of the cell. Every time a start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript ion leaves the cell, the cell’s interior loses a positive charge. Because of this, a slight excess of positive charge builds up on the outside of the cell membrane, and a slight excess of negative charge builds up on the inside. That is, the inside of the cell becomes negative relative to the outside, setting up a difference in electrical potential across the membrane.
 

System moving towards equilibrium:
If K+ can cross via channels, it will begin to move down its concentration gradient and out of the cell. (Channels are shown opening, potassium is shown moving from the interior to the exterior of the cell through channels.)
The movement of K+ ions down their concentration gradient creates a charge imbalance across the membrane. (The potassium ions that have crossed from the interior to the exterior of the cell are not partnered with anions on the outside of the cell. They line up along the membrane on the outside, and the unpartnered anions they left behind on the inside line up along the membrane on its inside face. The voltmeter now registers a slight negative voltage.)
The charge imbalance opposes the flow of K+ down the concentration gradient.
For ions (as for magnets), like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract. So, the establishment of the electrical potential difference across the membrane makes it harder for the remaining start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript ions to leave the cell. Positively charged start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript ions will be attracted to the free negative charges on the inside of the cell membrane and repelled by the positive charges on the outside, opposing their movement down the concentration gradient. The electrical and diffusional forces that influence movement of start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript across the membrane jointly form its electrochemical gradient (the gradient of potential energy that determines in which direction start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript will flow spontaneously).
Eventually, the electrical potential difference across the cell membrane builds up to a high enough level that the electrical force driving start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript back into the cell is equal to the chemical force driving start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript out of the cell. When the potential difference across the cell membrane reaches this point, there is no net movement of start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript in either direction, and the system is considered to be in equilibrium. Every time one start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript leaves the cell, another start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript will enter it.
 

At equilibrium:
At equilibrium, the concentration gradient of K+ is exactly balanced by the electrical potential difference across the membrane. Although K+ ions still cross the membrane via channels, there is no net movement of K+ from one side to the other. The voltmeter registers a negative membrane potential that is equal to the K+ equilibrium potential (for the K+ concentrations present in the cell and in the surrounding fluid).

The equilibrium potential

The electrical potential difference across the cell membrane that exactly balances the concentration gradient for an ion is known as the equilibrium potential. Because the system is in equilibrium, the membrane potential will tend to stay at the equilibrium potential. For a cell where there is only one permeant ionic species (only one type of ion that can cross the membrane), the resting membrane potential will equal the equilibrium potential for that ion.
The steeper the concentration gradient is, the larger the electrical potential that balances it has to be. You can get an intuitive feeling for this by imagining the ion concentrations on either side of the membrane as hills of different sizes and thinking of the equilibrium potential as the force you’d need to exert to keep a boulder from rolling down the slopes between them.
 

Left panel: Two compartments separated by a semi-permeable membrane, labeled A and B. There is a voltmeter between A and B. The ion of interest is much more concentrated in A than in B, and the voltmeter with electrodes in A and B registers a large negative voltage. The voltage is analogous to the force we would have to exert to keep a boulder from rolling from a very high place down a hill to a very low place.
Right panel: Same setup, but with A and B having a much slighter difference in concentration of the ion of interest (B slightly less concentrated than A). In this case, the voltage is only slightly negative. This is analogous to the case where we have a very high place and a slightly lower place and are exerting a force to keep a boulder from rolling down this not-very-steep hill.
If you know the start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript concentration on both sides of the cell membrane, then you can predict the size of the potassium equilibrium potential.

Does membrane potential equal start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript equilibrium potential?

In glial cells, which are the support cells of the nervous system, the resting membrane potential is equal to the start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript equilibrium potential.
In neurons, however, the resting membrane potential is close but not identical to the start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript equilibrium potential. Instead, under physiological conditions (conditions like those in the body), neuron resting membrane potentials are slightly less negative than the start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript equilibrium potential.
What does that mean? In a neuron, other types of ions besides start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript must contribute significantly to the resting membrane potential.

Both start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript contribute to resting potential in neurons

As it turns out, most resting neurons are permeable to start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, C, l, end text, start superscript, minus, end superscript as well as start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript. Permeability to start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript, in particular, is the main reason why the resting membrane potential is different from the potassium equilibrium potential.
Let’s go back to our model of a cell permeable to just one type of ion and imagine that start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript (rather than start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript) is the only ion that can cross the membrane. start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript is usually present at a much higher concentration outside of a cell than inside, so it will move down its concentration gradient into the cell, making the interior of the cell positive relative to the outside.
Because of this, the sodium equilibrium potential—the electrical potential difference across the cell membrane that exactly balances the start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript concentration gradient—will be positive. So, in a system where start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript is the only permeant ion, the membrane potential will be positive.
 

Starting state:
Zero voltage across the membrane, as measured by a voltmeter with one electrode inside and one electrode outside the cell. The inside of the cell has a low concentration of sodium ions, and the outside of the cell has a higher concentration of sodium ions. Each sodium ion is counterbalanced by an anion that is found on the same side of the membrane as the sodium ion. There are sodium channels in the membrane, but they are initially closed.
The channels open and Na+ can move through them.
At equilibrium:
The voltmeter now registers a positive voltage equal to the sodium equilibrium potential for this particular pair of sodium concentrations.. The Na+ ions have moved down their concentration gradient until their further movement is opposed by a countervailing electrical potential difference across the membrane. There are extra positive charges on the inside of the cell in the form of Na+ ions, and these Na+ ions line up along the membrane. On the opposite side of the membrane, there are extra anions (the former partners of the Na+ ions, which are unable to cross), which also line up at the membrane.
In a resting neuron, both start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript are permeant, or able to cross the membrane.
  • start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript will try to drag the membrane potential toward its (positive) equilibrium potential.
  • start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript will try to drag the membrane potential toward its (negative) equilibrium potential.
You can think of this as being like a tug-of-war. The real membrane potential will be in between the start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript equilibrium potential and the start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript equilibrium potential. However, it will be closer to the equilibrium potential of the ion type with higher permeability (the one that can more readily cross the membrane).

Opening and closing ion channels alters the membrane potential

In a neuron, the resting membrane potential is closer to the potassium equilibrium potential than it is to the sodium equilibrium potential. That’s because the resting membrane is much more permeable to start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript than to start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript.
  • If more potassium channels were to open up—making it even easier for start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript to cross the cell membrane—the membrane would hyperpolarize, getting even closer to the potassium equilibrium potential.
  • If, on the other hand, additional sodium channels were to open up—making it easier for start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript to cross the membrane—the cell membrane would depolarize toward the sodium equilibrium potential.
Changing the number of open ion channels provides a way to control the cell’s membrane potential and a great way to produce electrical signals. (We will see the opening and closing of channels again when we discuss action potentials.)

The start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscriptstart text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscriptpump maintains start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript gradients

The start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript concentration gradients across the membrane of the cell (and thus, the resting membrane potential) are maintained by the activity of a protein called the start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscriptstart text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript ATPase, often referred to as the sodium-potassium pump. If the start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscriptstart text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscriptpump is shut down, the start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript concentration gradients will dissipate, and so will the membrane potential.
Like the ion channels that allow start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript to cross the cell membrane, the start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscriptstart text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript pump is a membrane-spanning protein. Unlike potassium channels and sodium channels, however, the start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscriptstart text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript pump doesn’t just give start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript a way to move down their electrochemical gradients. Instead, it actively transports start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript against their electrochemical gradients.
The energy for this “uphill” movement comes from ATP hydrolysis (the splitting of ATP into ADP and inorganic phosphate). For every molecule of ATP that’s broke down, 3 start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript ions are moved from the inside to the outside of the cell, and 2 start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript ions are moved from the outside to the inside.
 

  1. Three sodium ions bind to the sodium-potassium pump, which is open to the interior of the cell.
  2. The pump hydrolyzes ATP, phosphorylating itself (attaching a phosphate group to itself) and releasing ATP. This phosphorylation event causes a shape change in the pump, in which it closes off on the inside of the cell and opens up to the exterior of the cell. The three sodium ions are released, and two potassium ions bind to the interior of the pump.
  3. The binding of the potassium ions triggers another shape change in the pump, which loses its phosphate group and returns to its inward-facing shape. The potassium ions are released into the interior of the cell, and the pump cycle can begin again.
_Image modified from “The sodium-potassium exchange pump,” by Blausen staff (CC BY 3.0)._
Because 3 start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript are exported for every 2 start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript brought into the cell, the pump makes a small direct contribution to the resting membrane potential (making it slightly more negative than it would otherwise be). The pump’s big contribution to the membrane potential, however, is indirect: It maintains steady start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript gradients, which give rise to the membrane potential as start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript move down their respective concentration gradients through leak channels.

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  • blobby green style avatar for user kakarorahahai
    Posted 4 years ago. Direct link to kakarorahahai’s post “please correct me if i am…”
     
    please correct me if i am wrong…this what i understood from this article:
    -we assume that initially there is electrical neutrality across the membrane.
    -then if channels are present they allow the movement of sodium and potassium ions and leads to the development of constant membrane potential.
    -now as the membrane potential is constant the charges leaving the cell must equal the charge entering .
    -na k pump maintains concentrations as some leakage of ions still take place.
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  • leafers seedling style avatar for user Pruthviraj Tarade
    Posted 6 years ago. Direct link to Pruthviraj Tarade’s post “do our physical movement…”
     
    do our physical movements affect ion exchange?
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    • duskpin ultimate style avatar for user Alexander
      Posted 6 years ago. Direct link to Alexander’s post “physical movement would c…”
       
      Good Answer
      physical movement would cause afferent sensory neurons to fire and yourself to notice that you are moving. Also moving itself would cause afferent neurons to send action potentials to the muscles, which affects the ion exchange.
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  • blobby green style avatar for user celina v
    Posted 4 years ago. Direct link to celina v’s post “I understand the mechanis…”
     

    I understand the mechanisms, but what is the actual point in maintaining the concentration gradients?
    As the article states, if the sodium/potassium pump ceased to function, the concentration gradients would dissipate. If the whole purpose of the concentration gradients is to create an action potential, why can’t the membrane be non polar and then instead of depolarising the membrane at threshold, it would merely, polarise it? this would still create an action potential would it not? I don’t understand WHY there is a whole mechanism to maintain these gradients when an action potential could still be created if the membrane at rest was non polar.

    Is it because there wouldn’t really be an resting membrane potential? I.e the membrane would never truly be at rest because of the different permeabilities and equilibrium potentials of the ions? Therefore an action potential would not be able to be created.. But if there was Na+ constantly moving in and K+ constantly moving out, why would this not keep a constant membrane potential?

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    • orange juice squid orange style avatar for user Okapi
      Posted 4 years ago. Direct link to Okapi’s post “I think it is because it …”
       
      I think it is because it is easier and faster to depolarize the membrane than to polarize it. The sodium/potassium pump needs energy and time to clear the intracellular space from sodium, and I guess it would be quite ineffective to take this mechanism for impulse transfer.
      And what one might forget is that every cell has a concentration gradient! I even heard it as a definition of life, to have a specific concentration of ions which is not the same as the one surrounding the cell. This concentration gradient is important for metabolic processes, i.e. to build new molecules or to break them down, and for the osmosis – water always tries to equal concentration differences out by going towards the more salty regions. That is how we absorb water and why people can’t drink sea water, for example.
      So the resting potential is very important.

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  • blobby green style avatar for user HUH AL
    Posted 4 years ago. Direct link to HUH AL’s post “Why Cl is not contributin…”
     
    Why Cl is not contributing much to the resting potential. More importantly, why the Cl does not move into the cell during action potential when the electrochemical gradient (charge and concentration) is in favor for Cl to move in?
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    • piceratops tree style avatar for user Jen
      Posted 4 years ago. Direct link to Jen’s post “The membrane is relativel…”
       
      The membrane is relatively impermeable to Cl-, yes, but Cl- influence is also reduced because its equilibrium potential is already close to the resting membrane potential (I believe Cl- equilibrium potential is around ~71mV)! Keep in mind the equilibrium potential of ions that the membrane is more permeable to has a greater impact on resting potential than that of ions the membrane is less permeable to. So even if permeability to Cl- increased, I’m fairly certain the value of the resting potential still wouldn’t be greatly affected. 🙂

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  • leaf green style avatar for user Shaine Galarce Sarmiento
    Posted 5 years ago. Direct link to Shaine Galarce Sarmiento’s post “Brief but detailed summar…”
     
    Brief but detailed summary of how resting membrane potential is generated
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    • blobby green style avatar for user student
      Posted 5 years ago. Direct link to student’s post “Resting membrane potentia…”
       
      Resting membrane potential is generated by the combination of sodium and potassium pump and the leak channels of these ions. The function of the pump is to take out three sodium from the cell and two potassium into the cell with the use of ATP (changes the shape of pump to release these ions), already with the stoichiometry difference, we see a charge difference. Furthermore, because it is more postive outside of the cell, and negative inside the cell, plasma membrane becomes more permeable to Potassium on our leak channels. Therefore, even with leak channels of both ions, potassium is more permeable. Causing a standard measurement of -70mV resting potential
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  • blobby green style avatar for user menal kameel
    Posted 5 years ago. Direct link to menal kameel’s post “at resting membrane poten…”
     
    at resting membrane potenital do Na go in and K out? i cant understand resting membrane potential
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    • blobby green style avatar for user vedant vani
      Posted 4 years ago. Direct link to vedant vani’s post “Resting membrane potentia…”
       
      Resting membrane potential of a neuron is about -70mV which means that the inside of the neuron is 70mV less than the outside. There are more k and less NA+ inside and more NA+ and less K+ outside. It is because the cell membrane is selectively permeable which means that is allows some substances to come in while restricting the others. The cell membrane is selectively more permeable to K than Na and hence there are more k inside than the outside, and hence outside is more positive then the inside.
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  • blobby green style avatar for user Emed1
    Posted 4 years ago. Direct link to Emed1’s post “Why is Chloride’s membran…”
     
    Why is Chloride’s membrane potential negative despite having a higher extracellular concentration?
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    • winston baby style avatar for user Ivana - Science trainee
      Posted 3 years ago. Direct link to Ivana – Science trainee’s post “IT is true, Cl- ions are …”
       

      IT is true, Cl- ions are more concentrated on the outside than on the inside.

      I can answer why is intracellular more negative – due to differences in Na/K plus die to exist negatively charged proteins in the cell.

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  • blobby green style avatar for user Dilayaykan
    Posted 6 years ago. Direct link to Dilayaykan’s post “what happens when the con…”
     
    what happens when the concentration of Na is increased in the extracellular fluid, is there a depolarization or hyperpolarization?
    And the same goes for the increased concentration of K in the extracellular fluid, is there a depolarization or hyperpolarization?
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    • leafers tree style avatar for user James
      Posted 5 years ago. Direct link to James’s post “When Na is increased in t…”
       
      When Na is increased in the ECF it will not have any major affect on the cell, a negligible depolarization if even measurable because the higher outside gradient will help push the Na into the cell (but remember that it isn’t very permeable so it’s minute).
      K will have a bigger effect because the extra ECF will decrease the internal leakage of K from ICF to ECF because there would be a higher gradient outside now. The end result would be in depolarizing the cell, how much would depend on how much K was added to the ECF.

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  • blobby green style avatar for user Nullie James
    Posted 2 years ago. Direct link to Nullie James’s post “in what ways is the Na+/K…”
     
    in what ways is the Na+/K+ pump different from the K+ channel
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  • male robot donald style avatar for user Qasim Hashmi
    Posted 3 years ago. Direct link to Qasim Hashmi’s post “why do the potassium and …”
     
    why do the potassium and the sodium become ions?
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    • winston baby style avatar for user Ivana - Science trainee
      Posted 3 years ago. Direct link to Ivana – Science trainee’s post “First, defintion of an io…”
       

      First, defintion of an ion:
      ‘an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.’
      https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/ion

      So, we have ions in our cells and extracellular matrix.
      Since redox reactions happen in our body, as a consequence we have ions.

      Which is more important, because our nervous sysem relies on transmitting neural signal (electrical current) we have to create that electrical field somehow – that’s why we have ions.

      Now, the change in concentration inside and outsid eof cell helps creating resting emmbrane potential, depolarization, repolarization and generating action potential (that’s how signal is porpagated).

      Action potential jumps from Ranvier node to another and that way is faster conducted until it reaches synapse or final destination – where it is transmitted into sensation (in our brain) or into some action (efferent pathways).

      Something as complicated as sensing that truck is runnign towards you while you are crossing the road (sorry if my example is morbid) all relies on little Na and K ions. And channels for Na and K as well. All down to the level of atoms and molecules (Biology cannot exist without Chemistry or Physics).

CAUTION: Graphic images of injury appear between 14:37 to 16:48 to demonstrate healing process. One of the leading pioneers in integrative health is Dr. Jerry Tennant, a renowned ophthalmologist whose book series “Healing is Voltage” describes his groundbreaking research into the body’s electrical circuitry. At EU2017: Future Science, Dr. Tennant presented, “Healing is Voltage – The Physics of Emotions,” which focused on the mind/body connection, and how emotions are stored in and around the body as magnetic fields. He discussed how these magnetic fields can cause harmful biochemical effects and create blockages in the associated muscle battery packs, which provide the necessary voltage for organs to function and repair themselves. Recently, he offered a series of presentations as part of a Continuing Medical Education class for Naturopathic Doctors in Arizona. Dr. Tennant and his group have kindly granted us permission to feature these lectures in our Electricity of Life label. In this introductory episode, Dr. Tennant begins with a summary of his remarkable personal and professional journey. He then lays the theoretical and evidentiary foundations for his research into the body’s complex wiring systems and his establishment of healing protocols. FROM THE ARCHIVE Dr. Jerry Tennant: Healing is Voltage — The Physics of Emotions | EU2017 https://youtu.be/pm-Ia6vI4PA If you see a CC with this video, it means that subtitles are available. To find out which ones, click on the Gear Icon in the lower right area of the video box and click on “subtitles” in the drop-down box. Then click on the subtitle that you would like. Become a Producer through the PATREON Rewards program… https://patreon.com/tboltsproject

 

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16:49 / 33:16 VIDEO PREZENTACIJA ODNOSA ACIDO BAZNE SREDINE I ĆELIJSKOG POTENCIJALA

CAUTION: Graphic images of injury appear between 14:37 to 16:48 to demonstrate healing process. One of the leading pioneers in integrative health is Dr. Jerry Tennant, a renowned ophthalmologist whose book series “Healing is Voltage” describes his groundbreaking research into the body’s electrical circuitry. At EU2017: Future Science, Dr. Tennant presented, “Healing is Voltage – The Physics of Emotions,” which focused on the mind/body connection, and how emotions are stored in and around the body as magnetic fields. He discussed how these magnetic fields can cause harmful biochemical effects and create blockages in the associated muscle battery packs, which provide the necessary voltage for organs to function and repair themselves. Recently, he offered a series of presentations as part of a Continuing Medical Education class for Naturopathic Doctors in Arizona. Dr. Tennant and his group have kindly granted us permission to feature these lectures in our Electricity of Life label. In this introductory episode, Dr. Tennant begins with a summary of his remarkable personal and professional journey. He then lays the theoretical and evidentiary foundations for his research into the body’s complex wiring systems and his establishment of healing protocols. FROM THE ARCHIVE Dr. Jerry Tennant: Healing is Voltage — The Physics of Emotions | EU2017 https://youtu.be/pm-Ia6vI4PA If you see a CC with this video, it means that subtitles are available. To find out which ones, click on the Gear Icon in the lower right area of the video box and click on “subtitles” in the drop-down box. Then click on the subtitle that you would like. Become a Producer through the PATREON Rewards program… https://patreon.com/tboltsproject

 

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Essential Guide to the Electric Universe http://thunderbolts.info/wp/eg-contents/

 

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Most people have heard of the “mind/body connection” and are aware that emotions affect the way people act. However, few can describe how that works. What is relatively new is our understanding that emotions are stored in and around the body as magnetic fields. Not only do these magnetic fields cause the biochemical effects noted above, but they also block the flow of voltage in the associated muscle battery packs that provide the voltage necessary for organs to function and repair themselves. He will discuss the human body’s battery packs, wiring system, and the physics of how our electronic systems are affected by these emotions. In addition, he will discuss how other magnetic fields and scalar energy can be used to erase these emotions, leaving behind only memories that do not disrupt our health and physiology. Dr. Jerry Tennant is board certified in ophthalmology and ophthalmic plastic surgery (residency, Harvard Medical School and Southwestern Medical School.) He was the director of ophthalmic plastic surgery clinic at Parkland Hospital in Dallas and practiced from 1965 to 1995. He did much of the FDA study for the VISX Excimer laser and performed approximately 1,000 surgeries in the United States and Europe. In addition, Dr. Tennant was the founder/director of the Dallas Eye Institute and one of the first surgeons in the USA to place intraocular lenses in eyes after cataract surgery and taught these techniques around the world. He holds patents for medical devices including intraocular lenses and several surgical instruments. While licensed in Arizona by the Board of Homeopathic and Alternative Medicine, Dr. Tennant is currently the Director of the Tennant Institute for Integrative Medicine. https://www.tennantinstitute.us/

 

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Dr. Jerry Tennant explains why people have trouble getting to sleep and staying asleep. Trouble sleeping or falling asleep is often a sign of under-performing adrenal glands. Although it may sound counter intuitive, lack of adrenal function results in an inability to fall asleep, stay asleep, difficulty in managing stress, problems multitasking, blood pressure issues, sexual disfunction, and inability to tolerate loud noises and noisy environments. This is a result of blockages on the spleen acupuncture meridian. When blockages in the spleen acupuncture meridian are resolved, voltage is restored and the body is supported nutritionally, these symptoms often resolve. ~~~~~ Drs. Jerry Tennant and Chase Faldmo, from the Tennant Institute in Colleyville Texas share their theories on energy medicine, using PHYSICS to heal the body naturally. Call the Tennant Institute (972-580-1156) to schedule an appointment and determine how your total body voltage may be affecting your health. Dr. Tennant is the author of the “Healing is Voltage” book series, national speaker and award winning physician.

Dr. Jerry Tennant says that commonly people’s backs go out even though they have not lifted something heavy. In only 35% of people with low back pain, there is a disc issue and typically a shooting pain down the leg. The other 65% do not have the leg pain, and he explains that he believes the cause is an open valve. ~~~~~ Drs. Jerry Tennant and Chase Faldmo, from the Tennant Institute in Colleyville Texas share their theories on energy medicine, using PHYSICS to heal the body naturally. Call the Tennant Institute (972-580-1156) to schedule an appointment and determine how your total body voltage may be affecting your health. Dr. Tennant is the author of the “Healing is Voltage” book series, national speaker and award winning physician.

From our Tennant Institute Theories series, here is Dr. Jerry Tennant’s full lecture on Glaucoma. Website: HTTP://www.tennantintstitute.com

 

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