innovative wellness solution

quantum pod business opportunity

IT'S TIME TO CHANGE

QUANTUM POD BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY

Play Video

Promotional Video

TREATMENTS WITHOUT THERAPIST

“In a unique Quantumspa-zone people experience our specially composed sounds, lights, colours, scents, warmth and deep vibrations. The easiest way to activate your self-healing abilities.”

RE-ENERGIZE YOUR CELLS, RECHARGE YOUR LIFE

Quantum Pod is a huge selling point for our property!
Having Quantum Pod absolutely positions our service at a higher level compared to others who don’t have it.

CHARGE UP YOUR CELLS!

 Quantum Pod system – was designed for wide application in both wellness, spa, fitness and at home by persons which do not have the medical education. It is intended to provide the general regulating effect on physiological systems of the human body as well as for healing functional disturbances in a wide range of pathology.

The Quantum Pod is the most sophisticated model within the Wellness range, incorporating a choice of 30 stimulation, relaxation and sedation programs, designed for regeneration or relaxation. “In a unique system people experience our specially composed sounds, lights, colours, scents, warmth and deep vibrations. The easiest way to activate your self-healing abilities.”

Offer something very special to your customers. Use this unique feature to stand out from your competitors and offer a service that will pay off.

Designed to reduce stress, promote relaxation, enhance muscle recovery and more, Quantum Pods offer a unique, multi-sensory experience that can be enjoyed by anyone, anytime.

Quantum Pod– combines the gentle sound waves of a special music with a highly efficient vibration massage system integrated into the lying surface. While the special sounds slow down the mental activity, the vibration massage acts specifically on the energy centers (chakras) of the body.

This innovative sound massage system combines the effects of deep relaxation techniques as well as meditation and mindfulness. Quantum Pod offers a quite extraordinary and special effective relaxation, anti-stress experience and boost energy.

KNOWLEDGE BASE

Play Video

CAUTION: Graphic images of injury appear between 14:37 to 16:48 to demonstrate healing process. One of the leading pioneers in integrative health is Dr. Jerry Tennant, a renowned ophthalmologist whose book series “Healing is Voltage” describes his groundbreaking research into the body’s electrical circuitry. At EU2017: Future Science, Dr. Tennant presented, “Healing is Voltage – The Physics of Emotions,” which focused on the mind/body connection, and how emotions are stored in and around the body as magnetic fields. He discussed how these magnetic fields can cause harmful biochemical effects and create blockages in the associated muscle battery packs, which provide the necessary voltage for organs to function and repair themselves. Recently, he offered a series of presentations as part of a Continuing Medical Education class for Naturopathic Doctors in Arizona. Dr. Tennant and his group have kindly granted us permission to feature these lectures in our Electricity of Life label. In this introductory episode, Dr. Tennant begins with a summary of his remarkable personal and professional journey. He then lays the theoretical and evidentiary foundations for his research into the body’s complex wiring systems and his establishment of healing protocols. FROM THE ARCHIVE Dr. Jerry Tennant: Healing is Voltage — The Physics of Emotions | EU2017 https://youtu.be/pm-Ia6vI4PA If you see a CC with this video, it means that subtitles are available. To find out which ones, click on the Gear Icon in the lower right area of the video box and click on “subtitles” in the drop-down box. Then click on the subtitle that you would like. Become a Producer through the PATREON Rewards program… https://patreon.com/tboltsproject

 

Subscribe to Thunderbolts eNewsletter http://eepurl.com/ETy41

 

The Thunderbolts Project homepage http://thunderbolts.info/wp/

 

Essential Guide to the Electric Universe http://thunderbolts.info/wp/eg-contents/

 

Electric Universe Books & Merch http://StickmanOnStone.com/

 

Electric Universe by Wal Thornhill http://HoloScience.com/wp/

 

Instagram https://www.instagram.com/thethunderb…

 

Facebook http://facebook.com/thunderboltsproject

 

Podcasts https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast…

 

Twitter @tboltsprojectLorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

Play Video

16:49 / 33:16 VIDEO PREZENTACIJA ODNOSA ACIDO BAZNE SREDINE I ĆELIJSKOG POTENCIJALA

CAUTION: Graphic images of injury appear between 14:37 to 16:48 to demonstrate healing process. One of the leading pioneers in integrative health is Dr. Jerry Tennant, a renowned ophthalmologist whose book series “Healing is Voltage” describes his groundbreaking research into the body’s electrical circuitry. At EU2017: Future Science, Dr. Tennant presented, “Healing is Voltage – The Physics of Emotions,” which focused on the mind/body connection, and how emotions are stored in and around the body as magnetic fields. He discussed how these magnetic fields can cause harmful biochemical effects and create blockages in the associated muscle battery packs, which provide the necessary voltage for organs to function and repair themselves. Recently, he offered a series of presentations as part of a Continuing Medical Education class for Naturopathic Doctors in Arizona. Dr. Tennant and his group have kindly granted us permission to feature these lectures in our Electricity of Life label. In this introductory episode, Dr. Tennant begins with a summary of his remarkable personal and professional journey. He then lays the theoretical and evidentiary foundations for his research into the body’s complex wiring systems and his establishment of healing protocols. FROM THE ARCHIVE Dr. Jerry Tennant: Healing is Voltage — The Physics of Emotions | EU2017 https://youtu.be/pm-Ia6vI4PA If you see a CC with this video, it means that subtitles are available. To find out which ones, click on the Gear Icon in the lower right area of the video box and click on “subtitles” in the drop-down box. Then click on the subtitle that you would like. Become a Producer through the PATREON Rewards program… https://patreon.com/tboltsproject

 

Subscribe to Thunderbolts eNewsletter http://eepurl.com/ETy41

 

The Thunderbolts Project homepage http://thunderbolts.info/wp/

 

Essential Guide to the Electric Universe http://thunderbolts.info/wp/eg-contents/

 

Electric Universe Books & Merch http://StickmanOnStone.com/

 

Electric Universe by Wal Thornhill http://HoloScience.com/wp/

 

Instagram https://www.instagram.com/thethunderb…

 

Facebook http://facebook.com/thunderboltsproject

 

Podcasts https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast…

 

Twitter @tboltsprojectLorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

STEP 1 COLOR THERAPY
Color affects all living cells and can have a very profound and healing effect on mind and body. It can also affect a particular mood or state of mind. Everything on earth contains color and if the human system lacks a specific color, disease will occur. Also, if disruptions in circadian rhythms are present, sleep disturbances and depression often occur.

STEP 2 QUANTUM NAPPING
Imagine a product that increases alertness, boosts creativity, reduces stress, improves perception, stamina, motor skills, and accuracy, enhances your sex life, helps you make better decisions, keeps you looking younger, aids in weight loss, reduces the risk of heart attack, elevates your mood, and strengthens memory. This miracle drug is, in fact, nothing more than the nap: the right nap at the right time.

STEP 3 MUSIC THERAPY
Music is an integral part of Quantum Pod and has been used for thousands of years as a compliment to the natural healing process, to improve mood and mindset and even restore energy.

Sound is a very important tool for staying healthy. Sound has no boundaries, thus allowing it to penetrate every cell of the body; not only affecting the body but also the psyche. More info…

BEAUTY AND HEALTH BEGINS IN THE CELL
 

ENERGETIC REJUVENATION

Healing and death begin on the cell membrane so that means when you learn how to heal the cell you will get well. If your cells are unhealthy, then your body is in a state of ‘un-health’ too!
Every living thing on the planet gives and receives energy including the cells in our body! This energy in our body we call the “Bio Field”. Bio Field transmits information to our cells’ own energy fields about what biochemical functions to perform and in what order.
When this energy is blocked, the information is also blocked and our body becomes tired and ceases to function the way it should. Yet medicine today totally ignores the health and strength of the body’s energy fields.
Imamo dva izvora ćelijske energije:
1. Prvi je preko ATP molekula iz šećera glukoze
2. A drugi je preko transmembranskog potencijala
Prvi izvor se odigrava na mitohondrijama u ćelijama.
Tokom procesa (razgradnje jednog molekula glukoze) glikolize i krepsovog ciklusa na mitohondrijama se proizvode ATP molekuli. Za vreme procesa glikolize, bez kiseonika, se proizvodi malo molekula ATP svega 6. Dok se za vreme Krepsovog ciklusa uz pomoć kiseonika proizvodi čak 32.
Otpuštanjem posforne grupe iz ATP molekula, ATP (adenozin tri fosfat) prelazi u ADP (adenozin di fosfat). I tako dobijamo energiju za biohemijske procese.
Drugi izvor
According to Nobel Prize Laureate, Dr. Otto Warburg, cells maintain a voltage across their membrane. Each cell has a positive charge on the outside and a negative charge on the inside. The outside is charged with Sodium ions (Na+), while the inside of the cell is charged with potassium ions (K++).
The two charges are separated by the cell membrane which serves as an insulator. Within the cell are ion pumps which pump ions into and out of the cell through the cell membrane. More potassium ions are pumped into the cell while sodium ions are pumped out of the cell, positively charging the cell. The difference in electrical potential (voltage) across the membrane is referred to as trans-membrane Potential (TMP). This process of charging the cells creates a second type of “cell battery” or energy storage, (ATP is the first).

Cells will power-down due to the aging process, stress, unhealthy diet, and the toxic environment we live in. Dr. Warburg found healthy people had cell voltages of 70-100 mV, people with chronic illnesses had cell voltages between 30-50 mV, whereas cancer patients displayed cell voltages less than 15-20 mV. Diminished cellular voltage has a direct correlation to disease and sickness. Cancer cannot thrive in highly charged cells. This is why we never hear of cancer of the heart, as it is the muscle that has the highest voltage of any organ in the body.

FERTI energy enhances the work of charging the batteries (transforming the mitochondria’s ADP to ATP). It stimulates all the components involved in delivering the oxygen and nutrients to the mitochondria for energy (ATP) production. FERTI enhances the body’s delivery systems including circulation and hydration. It increases oxygen absorption by energizing the cellular pumps, which boost the absorption of vital nutrients, and the expulsion of waste toxins from the metabolic process. The energized cells have an increased charge (TMP), which maximizes the aerobic respiration (with oxygen) of the body for optimum energy production (ATP).
It is notable that just 7 minutes of F.R.T Vibration had a positive effect on the unhealthy blood cells. It is also important to know that consistent use of this technology for an extended period of time is necessary to return cells to a continuous, fully healthy state, with a cell voltage that remains high enough to initiate a natural healing response within the body.
And again, simply mechanically vibrating the cells is not the same as increasing cellular voltage. With F.R.T Vibration, the cells vibrate in response to the frequency stimulation, which increases the electrical potential or voltage of the cell.
The effects on the body during treatment:
1. Ion grid rebalance:
2. Improving blood circulation:
Blood carries essential nutrients and oxygen throughout the body. Improving blood circulation allows the transfer of a number of essential nutrients to the places where they are needed and bring oxygen to the mitochondria in order to improve energy production.
3. Acceleration of metabolism:
An accelerated metabolism uses more calories for energy production and burns more fat.
4. Stimulation of the lymphatic system
The lymphatic system carries water and toxins and it is closely associated with cardiovascular system. On over time it even more slows down and blocks. If we stimulate the lymphatic system, we move the blockades and accelerate elimination of toxins from our body.
5. Dehydration and decomposition of fat:
Excess water that is trapped in the fat cells makes them appear larger than they actually are. The F.R.T removes water from the fat cells and breaks down fatty buildup in the fatty acids that the body can then use for energy.
From a scientific viewpoint, the electrical potential of the cell is a direct indicator of the overall health of the body. When the electrical potential is low, your cells lose their vitality and ability to function properly, which can lead to fatigue, lack of vitality, and decreased immunity. When you look at the live cell blood sample of an unhealthy person under a microscope; the cells appear clumped together and somewhat lifeless – a classic picture of low electrical potential.
6. Focus on Prevention
There are so many chronic disorders, aches and pains, that are currently only managed with a life-time of discomfort, or prescriptions that rob us of our quality of life and subject us to surviving numerous negative side effects. Why not explore another direction of preventative health, wellness and fitness? Our aim is to release the energy blockages, and help correct imbalances at their source, by helping to create a strong healthy body and immune system, so that the body can heal itself. To accomplish this, we must exercise, move lymphatic fluids, and increase circulation and energy in the cells so that they can function more effectively.

MORE INFO…

ENERGETIC REJUVENATION

Healing and death begin on the cell membrane so that means when you learn how to heal the cell you will get well.

If your cells are unhealthy, then your body is in a state of ‘un-health’ too!
I’m sure you remember from biology class that the human body is made up of cells. And that these cells perform thousands of biochemical functions every day.

When it’s all working correctly our bodies can maintain optimal health; but when it’s not, we begin to break down, get sick, feel tired, and look old before our time.

But what controls the biochemistry of our bodies?
Well now we know that the answer is … energy.

Every living thing on the planet gives and receives energy including the cells in your body! This energy forms Fields in your body that we call the Human “Body-Bio Field”.

Your Body-Bio Field transmits information to your cells’ own energy fields about what biochemical functions to perform and in what order.

When this energy is blocked, the information is also blocked and your body becomes tired and ceases to function the way it should. Yet medicine today totally ignores the health and strength of the body’s energy fields.

IWT, has developed a scanning device for your entire energy Body- Bio Field.

Not only will you see and measure the energy distortions in your Body- Bio Field , you will work with a Quantum Wellness Practitioner to take the simple, safe steps to restoring your Body- Bio Field so it can once again communicate correctly from your cells on out.

I know it sounds like something from Star Trek or science fiction – but it’s real.
We want to help you to be:

  • FIT
  • HEALTHY
  • LIVING YOUR PURPOSE
  • MANIFESTING YOUR DREAMS

A life where you wake up enthusiastic about the day, full of energy, and feeling in control of where you’re going and able to fulfill your highest potential.

When your Body- Bio Field is distorted, you feel like you are always behind the ball — not getting done what you want in a day, stuck in stressful situations, tired, and your body getting out of shape or starting to fall apart. Over time, this severe lack of energy may result in a number of debilitating diseases. 

A SECRET WEAPON FOR CELLULAR HEALING

TAKE YOUR HEALING TO THE NEXT LEVEL
Cellular energy is the gasoline of the cell, and nothing runs or functions without it. As nutrients flow into the cell, they feed the powerhouse called mitochondria, the cellular structures which produce ATP (aka cellular energy). Without adequate production of ATP, cells are unable to detoxify or regenerate properly. What’s more, the lower your ATP, the more inflammation is occurring at the cellular level. Individuals lacking ATP have become an epidemic in America and suffer from symptoms like fatigue, brain fog, digestive problems and hormone conditions. Without raising cellular ATP symptoms will not be impacted by treatments. For more info, read the complete R3 article here

Chemical pollution, toxic ingredients in our food, air, and water, electrical interference via EMF exposure, and even damage from harmful light rays. In our modern world, we’re exposed every day to too many toxins to even name. They interfere with our cells ability to function at their best. What if I told you that there was a tool that you could have in your own home to help counteract some of this damage, one that is offered by nature, but that our current way of living often interferes with us getting inadequate amounts? Let’s focus on red light. 

NAP PODS TECHNOLOGY


Imagine a product that increases alertness, boosts creativity, reduces stress, improves perception, stamina, motor skills, and accuracy, enhances your sex life, helps you make better decisions, keeps you looking younger, aids in weight loss, reduces the risk of heart attack, elevates your mood, and strengthens memory. Now imagine that this product is nontoxic, has no dangerous side effects, and, best of all, is absolutely free. This miracle drug is, in fact, nothing more than the nap: the right nap at the right time.

Stress and stress related illnesses are at epidemic proportions globally. However, our reaction to stressors can actually be one of relaxation. It’s all a matter of learning how to generate a healthy response in the face of stress and to learn how to routinely exist in this state. And everyone can learn.
When we experience fear-based emotions associated with stress we tend to shut down or act out in order to reduce our feelings of fear. Doing so disconnects us from our feelings, literally taking us away from our body. The key to feeling relaxed in the face of stress is to learn what it feels like to be fully present and relaxed. 4L.B.D (4 life Bio Design) technology induces a relaxed and present state of being that you can easily feel. The more you feel relaxed, the easier it gets to recreate these feelings. With greater use these relaxed feelings intensify making you more resistant to feeling the effects of stress and making it easier to recreate feelings of relaxation and presence even when you allow stress to get the better of you.
Using music, the technology produces pleasant sound and vibrations, which induces a very deep state of relaxed drowsiness. The synchronized magnetic field induces a much greater state of presence, as a result of its interaction with the human energy system. During your session, you are instructed to fall asleep, which promotes the development of drowsiness, but the intermittent changes in the intensity of the sound and vibration from the music typically keeps you from falling into a deep sleep. As a result of the changing intensity and greater presence you become profoundly relaxed, but over time you remain aware. You learn to appreciate how relaxed and present you can feel, which then allows you to recreate these feelings anytime and with further practice you learn to intensify them.
Stress Reduction:
According to recent American Psychological Association surveys, approximately 75% of Americans feel that their levels of stress are unhealthy. According the AmericanAcademy of Family Physicians, approximately 66% of doctor’s office visits are stress related. Clearly stress is at epidemic proportions in the U.S. and it doesn’t appear to be lessening.
Stressors in our environment, whether they result from illness, financial issues, and relationship problems or simply due to a traffic jam, first impact the human nervous system and then the body. The stress response prepares our body for fight or flight and in our society, with its numerous stressors, often causes us to experience stress on a chronic basis. The antidote is the Relaxation Response (RR). 4L.B.D technology can produce a very potent RR.
The technology consists of amplified layered music played through transducers that generate synchronized sound and vibration as well as a strategically placed dynamic magnetic field affecting the central nervous system and the human energy system, respectively.
Since the days of our early ancestors we have been endowed with a nervous system that has a built-in, hard-wired survival mechanism. With this mechanism we are always scanning our environment, consciously and subconsciously, for potential danger. The survival mechanism is supported primarily by 3 of our senses, sight, hearing, and touch. While you’re in a Energy and Sound session there is no need to worry about your survival because you are safe so it’s okay to turn this mechanism off or nearly so. We accomplish this by systematically turning off or habituating your senses of sight, hearing and touch. Reducing these sensory inputs to your survival mechanism deactivates or markedly reduces it, producing a brain state of inattention, so that you can relax. More info….

 

HEALING AND DEATH BEGIN ON THE CELL MEMBRANE SO THAT MEANS WHEN YOU LEARN HOW TO HEAL THE CELL YOU WILL GET WELL

Modern medicine uses biochemistry as the science of healing, but research is uncovering that Bioenergetics, an exciting, emerging area of 21st century medicine is a more effective, life-sustaining approach that heals all living systems.

Your body is made up of 70-100 trillion cells, and these cells perform thousands of biochemical functions every day. But what controls the biochemistry of your body? Well, we now know that the answer is … Energy and Information.

Every living thing on the planet gives & receives energy including the cells in your body! This energy forms fields in your body we call collectively “Body-Field”.

Your Body-Field transmits information to your cells’ own energy fields about what biochemical functions to perform and in what order – it is the “information-software” that directs your organism’s “energy-hardware”. When this energy is blocked, the information is also blocked or gets distorted, and your body ceases to function the way it should.

We can now accurately read your Body-Field and tune it to engage your body’s self-healing ability so that your body can more easily return to optimum function and health in a natural and safe way. More info…

IF YOUR CELLS ARE UNHEALTHY, THEN YOUR BODY IS IN A STATE OF ‘UN-HEALTH’ TOO!

Did you know that you have 75 Trillion cells in your body?
Did you know that every 11 month your cells renew themselves?
Did you know that every 3 month you make new blood cells?
Did you know that every 2 years your bone cells are completely renewed?
Did you know that every hour your body sheds 1 Billion dead cells?
Did you know that your cells need a 70 mV charge to perform cell turnover?
We are always rebuilding our cells, but with poor nutrition, poor cell function and our constant exposure to multiple sources of radiation this natural process is impaired and we become sick! Many civilization diseases right down to cancer are attributed to poor cell function, meaning when the cell charge drops disease can invade. For example a cancer cell has a charge of 20 mV, which is quite a difference from the required 70 mV for healthy cell turn over. How does the cell charge drop? Because of unhealthy lifestyle habits as well as the primary cause of wireless and other forms of radiation in our environment. This type of radiation is a silent killer as it directly impairs our cell function and we don’t even feel it.

Conventional medicine leaves this very important fact about optimal cell function totally out of the equation and focuses on the symptoms instead.

Quantum Zone’s Recharging & Rejuvenation Modules jointly optimize energy and cell functions, the precursor to human health – it is as simple as that!

Beauty comes as a reward for protecting your cells.

Anyone who is looking to improve their health and well-being would do very well to pay attention to the health of their cells. Our cells might be microscopic and seemingly insignificant, but they are responsible for pretty much everything that happens in the human body. But first let’s explore the mitochondria and antioxidants within the human body.

The cytologists Dr. Robert O. Becker and Dr. Bjorn Nordenstrom, former chairman of the Nobel Prize Committee, found out that almost all acute and chronic diseases may be caused by a decrease in the cell’s membrane voltage. According to their model, a person is just as healthy as his or her cells and their ability to communicate with each other. Thus, the health of the cell can be linked to this simple parameter: the electric cell membrane voltage. If ideally, the cell has a voltage of -70 mV, it has enough energy to live and to communicate with other cells. In the course of disease processes this voltage often decreases to -50 mV. In case of a voltage of -40 mV, pain and inflammation may arise. According to Becker and Nordenstrom, -15 mV is the threshold where the cell can mutate to a tumor cell. More info…

 

WHAT IF YOU COULD FLIP A SWITCH AND RECHARGE THE BATTERIES THAT KEEP YOUR BODY RUNNING?

What if each and every day, you could completely reset and restore depleted energy so that the second half of your day is as energized as the first half?

What if in that same process, you can identify the energetic imbalances caused by stress and toxicity and correct them BEFORE they manifest as illness or disease?

You… Can do this

Cutting edge advances in energy medicine are changing human performance. Over 4000 clinical trials on energy medicine alone have shown that Athletes are stronger, faster, and have markedly improved endurance. Cognitive function has been restored after Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Brain Injury, and PTSD. Aging skin and hair can be rejuvenated.

Over 4000 studies have shown that the precisely measured application of energy helps people Feel, Think, Look, and Perform, Better.

The reduction in chronic inflammation alone will have profound long-term benefits.

Better yet, recharging your body battery can be done free of drugs and adverse side effects. The side effects are in fact, positive.
First, we scan your body to identify energy-based pathologies that precede physical manifestation with a targeted combination of coded, “quantum-ceuticals” and then deliver pulsed stimulation of the biofield, cells, and cellular environment.

We then bathe your entire body with precisely metered energies that reduce inflammation, improve circulation, detoxify the cells, and supercharges the body’s charging systems. By first healing the cells, every tissue, organ, and system in your body is driven to its optimal state.

Our FERTI Whole-body therapy Device gives you the immediate restoration of the depleted energy required to be your best, while it simultaneously initiates long term optimization of every tissue, organ, and system in the body. More info…

SCIENTIFIC FACTS THAT PROVE YOUR BODY IS A BATTERY

Read that title one more time just in case you missed it. It doesn’t say “your body is LIKE a battery,” it says “your body IS a battery.”

That’s quite an idea, isn’t it? But the science emerging about how your body works show it’s more than an idea. Not just a metaphor but how things actually are. Let’s look at how this could be and what it means. More info…

WHY IS WORKOUT RECOVERY AS IMPORTANT AS THE WORKOUT ITSELF?
When thinking about how to boost your exercise results, what inevitably comes to mind first, is to exercise more. Workout recovery doesn’t seem to be the most intuitive method for getting better results.

Most people would think about hitting the gym an extra day in the week or adding an extra 20 minutes to their workout. Another go-to method to boost the results from your exercise is to consider your diet and try to eat better. This could mean anything from adding more greens to your diet to stacking up on supplements to give your body the nutrients it needs.

One thing that rarely comes across as essential to an efficient workout though, is not working out more, but resting more. Those who are focused on workout results can sometimes underestimate the power of a good rest, seeing it as cutting slack and wasting time that could be used to build muscle strength.

They would be very wrong. Resting time is actually the time when your body does all the muscle building. Working out is just the preparation phase for it.

Let’s examine this a bit more thoroughly and look into the mechanism of workouts.

What Happens During a Workout?

It’s not just your muscles that do the hard work when you exercise. Your heart, lymphatic system, hormones, brain, and entire body do their part to endure the workout. For now, let’s focus on your muscles and your heart.

What Happens to Your Muscles During Workout?

When you exercise your muscles, you apply force to them that they have not experienced before and you are disrupting their “status quo.” As a result, your muscles try to respond to the pressure and they tear up a little bit.

When this happens, your muscles signal this to your body and it sends special types of cells – muscle stem cells. They are there to connect the broken fibers and fuse them together. By fusing them together, they make them thicker and stronger – in other words, this makes your muscles grow.

At their core, muscle fibers are protein strands. When they break, some of that protein ends up in your system and needs to be flushed out through your kidneys. To have enough material, you need to have enough protein to form new fibers. You also need good cell proliferation, and you need the time to allow these processes to play out.

In other words, your muscles will grow only if you hit that sweet spot between breaking down the muscle tissue and synthesizing it with the new one quickly and efficiently enough. Even if you choose a workout with fast results, your body will have to go through the same process.

What Happens to Your Heart During a Workout?

When you work out, your body reaches for an energy fuel so it can support the additional nourishment needed by the working muscles. It blazes through the glucose and ATP (adenosine triphosphate) deposits quickly and it signals to the heart to pump more and faster and deliver the necessary oxygen. This oxygen is needed to create more energy.

Your heart then increases its rate, starts pumping more oxygen and the muscles start helping the blood flow by squeezing the veins and other blood vessels, feeding more blood to the heart.

When you are out of shape, it takes a long time to get your heart back to its normal heart after exercise. The fitter you get, the recovery time gets shorter.

What Happens During Post Workout Recovery?

Obviously, a lot of stuff happens during the exercise. In most cases, you are aware of those processes. Your muscles hurt, your heart rate jumps up, you sweat, feel the adrenaline, and much more. Since you are actively aware of these reactions in your bodies, you tend to think that that’s when everything happens.

The resting phase doesn’t seem that eventful. More precisely, the processes occurring during this phase are not as evident. They do happen and they are arguably even more important than what happens during the exercise itself. Here’s what starts to happen once you stop exercising.

Muscles in the Post Workout Recovery Phase

When your body realizes your muscles are under pressure and that the tissue is breaking down, it will try to regulate this process by releasing lactate into your system. The idea behind this is to help with the production of energy, but also to stop your muscles from overworking themselves. This lactate is what causes that post-workout soreness.

So, in the post workout and recovery phase, your muscles are trying to get rid of the serum lactate and at the same time, they are attempting to bond better and stronger fibers. For that, they are “asking for” more protein. During this recovery period, if you don’t give your muscles enough protein and enough rest, you will actually reverse the process of muscle building and turn it into a destructive process.

Your Heart in the Post Workout Recovery Phase

Depending on the type of workout, among other effects, your heart and circulatory system cause your blood pressure to drop due to central or peripheral vasodilation. In other words, your blood vessels relax, dilate, and make more space for the blood, so the pressure drops.

This gives your heart the time it needs to rest. This also means that your blood flow has increased, but with less effort from your heart.

While the direct resting state for your heart is just a couple of minutes, it also has a prolonged recovery period. During this period, it is more vulnerable than it usually is. Forcing it into prolonged periods of this state would not have good effects on your cardiovascular health.

On the contrary. Not allowing your heart to rest means that it will not be able to function properly and that means that you will be risking much more than just faster muscle growth. Rest is crucial for your heart. Just look at the way sleep deprivation can be devastating to its function.

How to Achieve that High-Quality Post-Exercise Rest?

Everybody is eager to get back to running after their fitness goals and resting is not high on their priority list. This is about to change if you want to enjoy a real workout with fast results and avoid health issues that would set you back even further. Here’s what you can do to speed up your recovery:

Good sleep to restore your energy and balance your hormones
A massage to get that lymphatic system running and repairing your body
Hydrate to replenish your electrolytes and heal your muscle fibers
Get your magnesium to reduce serum lactate in your muscles
Shock your body with hot and cold showers
Get your QUANTUM ZONE therapy

FERTI therapy will have some amazing effects on your workout recovery. On its own, FERTI helps your body produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules which act as the main energy fuel for your body. Energizing your body means restoring it and allowing it to thrive.

That’s not all. Besides having this amazing effect on your body, FERTI therapy also boosts the effects of all those other recovery mechanisms listed above. It helps improve sleep quality, boosts the lymphatic system, improves magnesium absorption, and much more.

You can enjoy FERTI therapy anytime and anywhere when you have your own portable FERTI therapy device.

The human body is made up of trillions of “building blocks” called cells, each of which is fully able to perform all the processes that define life – respiration, energy production, movement, digestion, elimination, reproduction, etc. Just as the foundation of health is only as strong as its building blocks, we are only as healthy (or unhealthy) as our cells!

Cells are like miniature bodies in that they need to take in nutrients and eliminate wastes in order to stay healthy. Luckily, each cell is surrounded by a membrane which acts as a vigilant gatekeeper: Only those nutrients needed by the cell at a given moment are allowed to enter, and only waste material and metabolic products are allowed to leave. Maintaining this selective, discretionary power is crucial to cellular health and vitality. Cells that cannot properly assimilate nutrients or eliminate wastes could be respectively described as “starved” or “constipated”! When such conditions exist, cells may become toxic and “sluggish” instead of healthy and vital. More info…

Scientific

Objective measurement method to ascertain energy status – TBR System

The science of acupuncture from Traditional Chinese Medicine is based on energy flows within the meridians. It is both scientifically known and recognised that the individual is made up of functional circuits that communicate with one another. There are 72 meridians, including 12 principal meridians, located on the left and right sides of the body and forming the energy channels of the body.

If no problems are present, energy flows unimpeded through these meridians and thus supplies energy to all the functional circuits of the body; the individual is healthy. If the flow stagnates in one of the energy pathways then symptoms will develop in the long term.

Over the centuries, the Chinese have used subjective methods, such as eye-reading diagnosis or feeling the pulse, to determine the status of the organs, functional circuits and meridians.

In our western cultures, we prefer to use objective measuring methods for diagnosis.

The TBR System meridian and energy status measuring system is a bridge between the intuitive “feeling” of energy and our rational, anatomical philosophy.

Measuring the meridians can be used to create a picture of the energy status of the body painlessly. The TBR  System measures skin resistance at the starting and endpoints of the classical meridians. A computer program is used to calculate the energy status of the body and to illustrate blockages and weak points in diagram form.

By taking a measurement both before and after use, the effect – the way in which TBR System causes vital energy to flow once more – can be demonstrated graphically. This allows the change in your energy status can be ascertained very accurately and your individual requirements can thus be targeted very specifically.

TBR System is a unique combination of Chinese knowledge going back 5,000 years and up-to-the-minute computer technology. A measurement can therefore determine the energy status of your body, and any energy imbalances and interference fields can be detected, together with blockages that may be caused by scar tissue, stress or mental problems. The results of the measurement allow a program to be devised that is adjusted to the individual user and also allow the efficacy to be observed.

The measurement method is non-invasive; the procedure is totally painless and lasts only about 20 minutes.

Meridian diagnostics and energy status measurement – space technology
In 1993 and 1994, Prof. Dr. med. Valery Polyakov orbited the earth non-stop for a total of 438 days in the MIR space station. A meridian diagnosis system was used on this flight to monitor the cosmonaut crews and for his own self-diagnosis and treatment. This preventive measure alone prevented him developing any symptoms of illness. In contrast to previous space flights (the American record at the time was 20 days non-stop in space) Prof. Polyakov returned to Earth fit and with no health problems.

Energy status, energy distribution and any blockages in the body can be visualised using theTBR System meridian diagnostics system and the change after just a single TBR System session can be shown.

TBR System – energy status measurement
TBR System is a computer analysis system for health. In the event of symptoms, the system determines which meridians are disturbed, what has caused this disturbance and what needs to be done to remedy it. It is a unique combination of 5,000-year-old Chinese knowledge based on the energy flows in the meridians with western rational logic and the measuring techniques of modern computer technology and microchips.

This means that your energy status can be ascertained very accurately and therapy can consequently be directed specifically to your needs. In this way, for example, you will discover the best setting and optimum action of the TBR  System.

Technical background of an TBR System Measurement
The energy status of the meridians is determined at the start and end points of the meridians. The measurements are delegable and reproducible. The measuring process is controlled by four microchips. 400 measurements are carried out for each measuring point within a few milliseconds. The computer interprets and processes the measured data, which are then displayed in graph form on the screen. The measurements are pressure-free and taken with an extremely low current within a very short period. The energy output at the acupuncture point measured is a constant 455 billionth of a Joule.

Measurement inaccuracies are filtered out and the computer calculates the meridian value. With a resistance measuring range from 20 kOhm to 60,000 kOhm, it is possible to measure even extremely sick patients. The measurement duration depends on the level of resistance. With a resistance of 1,000 kOhm it is 12 milliseconds, at 20,000 kOhm it is 150 milliseconds. The electrical load on the skin is 455 billionth of a Joule. This means that the cells are not damaged during the measurement as occurs with other procedures. The system has a measurement error of 0.25% (absolute reproducibility according to Prof. F. Popp. Erfahrungsheilkunde, January 2002).

Unlike most other systems, the acupuncture point is not mechanically or electrically stressed. The measuring pin is spring-mounted so that the measuring pressure of 20 grams is always constant and the measurement is totally reproducible. The measuring current of 0.4 microamperes is also very low. Minimal mechanical pressure and a very small current ensure optimum reliability and hence reproducibility of the measurement. Use of a 1.2 volt battery means that “electrosmog” is not perceptible around the apparatus. Transmission of the data from the measuring computer to the computer is undertaken using infrared so that no indirect electrical influence takes place via the computer either. All these factors make the measurements objective and reproducible.

TBR System application
The meridian measurement used in the TBR System has proven its value over many years and involves the following benefits and opportunities:

Establishment of the energy status
Detection of energy imbalances
Finding the causes of chronic afflictions
Observation and evaluation of the efficacy of treatments
Detection of blockages arising from scar tissue, stress, psychological problems, etc., for example
Detection of interference fields
An overall application plan consists of 4 steps:

Removing the causes of physical problems and restoring bodily functions
Bringing energy flow imbalances back into equilibrium
Processing/integrating unintegrated and unprocessed emotions
Accompanying the client into the life situation s/he desires
Since the meridians are all-encompassing and provide us with information about physical and mental disorders, TBR System can serve as a starting point for every treatment. By using the measured results we are far better able to determine the direction of measures to be taken and to test the results afterwards. TBR System measurements in combination with the use of theTBR System can quickly lead to effective holistic treatment.

Proof of efficacy using dark-field microscopy
It is both known and scientifically proven that weakened cell metabolism in the blood vessels results in water being deposited. If the vessels swell up, blood can flow only slowly. This, in turn, causes the blood corpuscles to form clumps which can absorb less oxygen. This negative effect is reinforced by “electrosmog” (electromagnetic radiation), such as is given off by radiation from mobile phones, radio and mobile phone transmitter masts and electrical appliances, by a poor diet, medicines, emotional problems, such as stress and overload, too little exercise and severe pollution of the air, soil and water by a wide variety of toxins. Ultimately, the result is poor supply to organs and tissue.

The current “status” of the blood can be observed under a dark-field microscope. Dark-field microscopy is an optical method of examining objects that are so small as to be well below the level of perception of the human eye and that can therefore not be viewed or can only be viewed to a limited extent without technical assistance.

The vibrations, music, notes, oscillations and pulsed magnetic fields generated according to scientific principles by the TBR  System improve cell metabolism, dilate the capillaries, break up the clumps (what is known as the sludging phenomenon) and thus allow the blood cells to take up and transport more oxygen. The result is that circulation to the whole body improves with higher supplies of oxygen and nutrients. Waste products are carried away.

Proof of efficacy using a thermal imaging camera

The process of using a thermal imaging camera to create pictures is known as thermography. Thermography is an imaging process that visualises the heat radiated by an object or body that is invisible to the human eye (medium infrared). In thermography, temperature distributions over surfaces are recorded and depicted. Thermography is a non-contact measurement procedure.

In the field of medicine, one of the uses of thermal imaging cameras is to detect the sites of local inflammations or infections. A thermal imaging camera can also be used to visualise the increased temperature radiation resulting from increased circulation, such as occurs, for example, after a single use of TBR System

Proof of efficacy using heart-rate variability measurements
Heart-frequency or heart-rate variability (HRV) describes the ability of an organism to change the frequency of its cardiac rhythm. Spontaneous changes in the time between two heartbeats occur even at rest.

A healthy body uses autonomic, physiological regulation pathways to adjust the heart-rate constantly to instantaneous requirements. Physical exertion or mental stress is thus known to lead to an increased heart-rate, which normally decreases again on resting or relaxation. Greater variability in heart-rate indicates a greater ability to adjust to stress. In contrast, under a chronic stress load, both of these are more or less restricted and thus reduced because of the typically high, ongoing tension levels.

A heartbeat in a healthy individual is triggered by an impulse from the sinus node, the central pacemaker of the autonomic excitation system of the heart. This, in turn, is influenced by the higher-ranking vegetative nervous system, the sympathetic nervous system exerting an activating influence, one of the effects of which is to increase heart rate. Physical and mental stresses are accompanied by an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity in parallel to the physical functions controlled by the vagus nerve, such as digestion.

Just a single TBR System session results in a significant increase in heart-rate variability, the capacity to adjust to stress is increased, and the actions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic, and the enteric nervous systems, which, together, form the nervous system and control all the organs, are balanced out.

Life Sound Chaise
The Energy and Meditation Machine!

 

Stress and stress related illnesses are at epidemic proportions globally. However, our reaction to stressors can actually be one of relaxation. It’s all a matter of learning how to generate a healthy response in the face of stress and to learn how to routinely exist in this state. And everyone can learn.
When we experience fear-based emotions associated with stress we tend to shut down or act out in order to reduce our feelings of fear. Doing so disconnects us from our feelings, literally taking us away from our body. The key to feeling relaxed in the face of stress is to learn what it feels like to be fully present and relaxed. 4L.B.D (4 life Bio Design) technology induces a relaxed and present state of being that you can easily feel. The more you feel relaxed, the easier it gets to recreate these feelings. With greater use these relaxed feelings intensify making you more resistant to feeling the effects of stress and making it easier to recreate feelings of relaxation and presence even when you allow stress to get the better of you.
Using music, the technology produces pleasant sound and vibrations, which induces a very deep state of relaxed drowsiness. The synchronized magnetic field induces a much greater state of presence, as a result of its interaction with the human energy system. During your session, you are instructed to fall asleep, which promotes the development of drowsiness, but the intermittent changes in the intensity of the sound and vibration from the music typically keeps you from falling into a deep sleep. As a result of the changing intensity and greater presence you become profoundly relaxed, but over time you remain aware. You learn to appreciate how relaxed and present you can feel, which then allows you to recreate these feelings anytime and with further practice you learn to intensify them.
Stress Reduction:
According to recent American Psychological Association surveys, approximately 75% of Americans feel that their levels of stress are unhealthy. According the AmericanAcademy of Family Physicians, approximately 66% of doctor’s office visits are stress related. Clearly stress is at epidemic proportions in the U.S. and it doesn’t appear to be lessening.
Stressors in our environment, whether they result from illness, financial issues, and relationship problems or simply due to a traffic jam, first impact the human nervous system and then the body. The stress response prepares our body for fight or flight and in our society, with its numerous stressors, often causes us to experience stress on a chronic basis. The antidote is the Relaxation Response (RR). 4L.B.D technology can produce a very potent RR.
The technology consists of amplified layered music played through transducers that generate synchronized sound and vibration as well as a strategically placed dynamic magnetic field affecting the central nervous system and the human energy system, respectively.
Since the days of our early ancestors we have been endowed with a nervous system that has a built-in, hard-wired survival mechanism. With this mechanism we are always scanning our environment, consciously and subconsciously, for potential danger. The survival mechanism is supported primarily by 3 of our senses, sight, hearing, and touch. While you’re in a Energy and Sound session there is no need to worry about your survival because you are safe so it’s okay to turn this mechanism off or nearly so. We accomplish this by systematically turning off or habituating your senses of sight, hearing and touch. Reducing these sensory inputs to your survival mechanism deactivates or markedly reduces it, producing a brain state of inattention, so that you can relax. 
 

NOBELFÖRSAMLINGEN KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET
THE NOBEL ASSEMBLY AT THE KAROLINSKA INSTITUTE

https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1991/press-release/

The Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute has today decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1991 jointly to

Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann

for their discoveries concerning “the function of single ion channels in cells”.

Summary

Each living cell is surrounded by a membrane which separates the world within the cell from its exterior. In this membrane there are channels, through which the cell communicates with its surroundings. These channels consist of single molecules or complexes of molecules and have the ability to allow passage of charged atoms, that is ions. The regulation of ion channels influences the life of the cell and its functions under normal and pathological conditions. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1991 is awarded for the discoveries of the function of ion channels. The two German cell physiologists Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann have together developed a technique that allows the registration of the incredibly small electrical currents (amounting to a picoampere – 10-12A) that passes through a single ion channel. The technique is unique in that it records how a single channel molecule alters its shape and in that way controls the flow of current within a time frame of a few millionths of a second.

Neher and Sakmann conclusively established with their technique that ion channels do exist and how they function. They have demonstrated what happens during the opening or closure of an ion channel with a diameter corresponding to that of a single sodium or chloride ion. Several ion channels are regulated by a receptor localized to one part of the channel molecule which upon activation alters its shape. Neher and Sakmann have shown which parts of the molecule that constitute the “sensor” and the interior wall of the channel. They also showed how the channel regulates the passage of positively or negatively charged ions. This new knowledge and this new analytical tool has during the past ten years revolutionized modern biology, facilitated research, and contributed to the understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying several diseases, including diabetes and cystic fibrosis.

What Happens Inside the Cell?

Inside the cell membrane there is a well-defined environment, in which many complex biochemical processes take place. The interior of the cell differs in important respects from its outside. For example the contents of positive sodium and potassium ions and negatively charged chloride ions are quite different. This leads to a difference in electrical potential over the cell membrane, amounting to 0.03 to 0.1 volts. This is usually referred to as the membrane potential.

The cell uses the membrane potential in several ways. By rapidly opening channels for sodium ions the membrane potential is altered radically within a thousandth of a second. Cells in the nervous system communicate with each other by means of such electrical signals of around a tenth of a volt that rapidly travel along the nerve processes. When they reach the point of contact between two cells – the synapse – they induce the release of a transmitter substance. This substance affects receptors on the target cell, often by opening ion channels. The membrane potential is hereby altered so that the cell is stimulated or inhibited. The nervous system consists of a series of networks each comprised of nerve cells connected by synapses with different functions. New memory traces in the brain are for example created by altering the number of available ion channels in the synapses of a given network.

All cells function in a similar way. In fact, life itself begins with a change in membrane potential. As the sperm merges with the egg cell at the instant of fertilization ion channels are activated. The resultant change in membrane potential prevents the access of other sperm cells. All cells – for instance nerve cells, gland cells, and blood cells – have a characteristic set of ion channels that enable them to carry out their specific functions. The ion channels consist of single molecules or complexes of molecules, that forms the wall of the channel – or pore – that traverses the cell membrane and connects the exterior to the interior of the cell (Figure 1B and 1D). The diameter of the pore is so small that it corresponds to that of a single ion (0.5-0.6 millionths of a millimetre). An immediate change in the shape of the molecule leads to either an opening or a closure of the ion channel. This can occur upon activation of the receptor part of the molecule (Figure 1D) by a specific signal molecule. Alternatively a specific part of the molecule that senses changes in membrane potential can open or close the ion channel.

 Figure 1.

Figure 1. Registration of the flow of current through single ion channels using the recording technique of Neher and Sakmann. A schematically shows how a glass micropipette is brought in contact with the cell, and B, using a higher magnification, a part of the cell membrane, with ion channels, in close contact with the tip of the pipette. The interior of the pipette is connected to an electronic amplifier. C shows a channel in greater magnification with its receptor facing the exterior of the cell and its ion filter. D shows the current passing through the ion channel as it opens.

Neher and Sakmann Record the Electric Current Flowing Through a Single Ion Channel

It has long been known that there is a rapid ion exchange over the cell membrane, but Neher and Sakmann were the first to show that specific ion channels actually exist. To elucidate how an ion channel operates it is necessary to be able to record how the channel opens and closes. This appeared elusive since the ionic current through a single ion channel is extraordinarily small. In addition, the small ion channel molecules are embedded in the cell membrane. Neher and Sakmann succeeded in solving these difficulties. They developed a thin glass micropipette (a thousandths of a millimeter in diameter) as a recording electrode. When it is brought in contact with the cell membrane, it will form a tight seal with the periphery of the pipette orifice (Figure 1A, B). As a consequence the exchange of ions between the inside of the pipette and the outside can only occur through the ion channel in the membrane fragment (Figure 1B). When a single ion channel opens, ions will move through the channel as an electric current, since they are charged. Through a refinement of the electronic equipment and the experimental conditions they succeeded in measuring this “microscopical” current by laborious methodological developments during the seventies (Figure 1C).

How Does an Ion Channel Operate?

Ion channels are of different types. Some only permit the flow of positively charged sodium, potassium or calcium ions, others only negatively charged chloride ions. Neher and Sakmann discovered how this specificity is accomplished. One reason is the diameter of the ion channel, which is adapted to the diameter of a particular ion. In one class of ion channels, there are also two rings of positively or negatively charged amino acids. They form an ionic filter (see Figure 1D), which only permits ions with an opposite charge to pass through the filter. In particular Sakmann through a creative interaction with different molecular biologists elucidated how the different parts of the ion channel molecule(s) operate. Neher and Sakmann’s scientific achievements have radically changed our views on the function of the cell and the contents of text books of cell biology. Their methods are now used by thousands of scientists all over the world.

The Study of Secretory Processes

Nerve cells, as well as hormone-producing cells and cells engaged in the host defence (like mast cells) secrete different agents. They are stored in vesicles enclosed by a membrane. When the cell is stimulated the vesicles move to the cell surface. The cell and vesicle membranes fuse and the agent is liberated. The mast cell secretes histamine and other agents that give rise to local inflammatory reactions. The cells of the adrenal medulla liberate the stress hormone adrenaline, and the beta cells in the pancreas insulin. Neher elucidated the secretory processes in these cell types through the development of a new technique which records the fusion of the vesicle(s) with the cell membrane. Neher realized that the electric properties of a cell would change if its surface area increased making it possible to record the actual secretory process. Through further developments of their sophisticated equipment the resolution finally permitted recording of each little vesicle fusing with the cell membrane.

Regulation of Ion Channel Function

Neher and Sakmann also used the electrode pipette to inject different agents into the cell, and they could thereby investigate the different steps in the secretory process within the cell itself (see above). In this way a number of cellular secretory mechanisms have been clarified such as the role of cyclic AMP (see Nobel Prize to Sutherland 1971) or calcium ions. For instance, we now have a better understanding of how the hormone levels in the blood are maintained at a certain level.

Also the basal mechanisms underlying the secretion of insulin have been identified. The level of blood glucose controls the level of glucose within the insulin-forming cell, which in turn regulates the level of the energy rich substance ATP. ATP acts directly on a particular type of ion channel which controls the electric membrane potential of the cell. The change of membrane potential then indirectly influences other ion channels, which permit calcium ions to pass into the cell. The calcium ions subsequently trigger the insulin secretion. In diabetes the insulin secretion is out of order. Certain drugs commonly used to stimulate insulin secretion in diabetes act directly on the ATP-controlled ion channels.

Many other diseases depend entirely, or partially, on a defect regulation of ion channels, and a number of drugs act directly on ion channels. Many pathological mechanisms have been clarified during the eighties through ion channel studies, for instance cystic fibrosis (cloride ion channels), epilepsy (sodium and potassium ion channels), several cardio-vascular diseases (calcium ion channels), and neuro-muscular disorders like Lambert-Eatons disease (calcium ion channels). With the help of the technique of Neher and Sakmann it is now possible to tailormake drugs, to achieve an optimal effect on particular ion channels of importance in a given disease. Drugs against anxiety act for instance on certain inhibitory ionic channels in the brain. Alcohol, nicotine and other poisons act on yet other sets of ion channels.

In summary, Neher and Sakmann’s contributions have meant a revolution for the field of cell biology, for the understanding of different disease mechanisms, and opened a way to develop new and more specific drugs.

References

Alberts et al.: The Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland Press, 1990, 2nd edition, pp. 156, 312-326, 1065-1084.

Grillner, S. I: N. Calder (ed.). Scientific Europe. Foundation Scientific Europe, 1990.

Grillner, S. & Hökfelt, T.: Svindlande snabb utveckling präglar neurovetenskapen. Läkartidningen 1990, 87, 2777-2786.

Rorsman, P. & Fredholm, B.B.: Jonkanaler – molekylär bakgrund till nervtransmission. Läkartidningen 1991, 88, 2868-2877.

How the resting membrane potential is established in a neuron

Key points:

  • A resting (non-signaling) neuron has a voltage across its membrane called the resting membrane potential, or simply the resting potential.
  • The resting potential is determined by concentration gradients of ions across the membrane and by membrane permeability to each type of ion.
  • In a resting neuron, there are concentration gradients across the membrane for start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript. Ions move down their gradients via channels, leading to a separation of charge that creates the resting potential.
  • The membrane is much more permeable to start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript than to start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript, so the resting potential is close to the equilibrium potential of start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript (the potential that would be generated by start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript if it were the only ion in the system).

Introduction

Suppose you have a dead frog. (Yes, that’s kind of gross, but let’s just imagine it for a second.) What would happen if you applied an electrical stimulus to the nerve that feeds the frog’s leg? Creepily enough, the dead leg would kick!
The Italian scientist Luigi Galvani discovered this fun fact back in the 1700s, somewhat by accident during a frog dissection. Today, we know that the frog’s leg kicks because neurons (nerve cells) carry information via electrical signals.

How do neurons in a living organism produce electrical signals? At a basic level, neurons generate electrical signals through brief, controlled changes in the permeability of their cell membrane to particular ions (such as start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript). Before we look in detail at how these signals are generated, we first need to understand how membrane permeability works in a resting neuron (one that is not sending or receiving electrical signals). 

In this article, we’ll see how a neuron establishes and maintains a stable voltage across its membrane – that is, a resting membrane potential.

The resting membrane potential

Imagine taking two electrodes and placing one on the outside and the other on the inside of the plasma membrane of a living cell. If you did this, you would measure an electrical potential difference, or voltage, between the electrodes. This electrical potential difference is called the membrane potential.
 

Diagram of a voltmeter measuring the membrane potential. One electrode is outside the cell. The other electrode is in the interior of the cell. The voltmeter shows a -70 mV voltage across the membrane.
_Image modified from “How neurons communicate: Figure 2,” by OpenStax College, Biology (CC BY 4.0)._
Like distance, potential difference is measured relative to a reference point. In the case of distance, the reference point might be a city. For instance, we can say that Boston is 190 start text, m, i, l, e, s, end text northeast, but only if we know that our reference point is New York City.
For a cell’s membrane potential, the reference point is the outside of the cell. In most resting neurons, the potential difference across the membrane is about 30 to 90 start text, m, V, end text (a start text, m, V, end text is 1, slash, 1000 of a volt), with the inside of the cell more negative than the outside. That is, neurons have a resting membrane potential (or simply, resting potential) of about minus, 30 start text, m, V, end text to minus, 90 start text, m, V, end text.
Because there is a potential difference across the cell membrane, the membrane is said to be polarized.
  • If the membrane potential becomes more positive than it is at the resting potential, the membrane is said to be depolarized.
  • If the membrane potential becomes more negative than it is at the resting potential, the membrane is said to be hyperpolarized.
 

Diagrams of voltmeters with one electrode inside the cell and one in the fluid outside of the cell. The first voltmeter shows hyperpolarization: it reads -80 mV. The second voltmeter shows the resting potential: it reads -70 mV. The third voltmeter shows depolarization: it reads +40 mV.
_Image modified from “How neurons communicate: Figure 2,” by OpenStax College, Biology (CC BY 4.0)._
All of the electrical signals that neurons use to communicate are either depolarizations or hyperpolarizations from the resting membrane potential.

Where does the resting membrane potential come from?

The resting membrane potential is determined by the uneven distribution of ions (charged particles) between the inside and the outside of the cell, and by the different permeability of the membrane to different types of ions.

Types of ions found in neurons

In neurons and their surrounding fluid, the most abundant ions are:
  • Positively charged (cations): Sodium (start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript) and potassium (start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript)
  • Negatively charged (anions): Chloride (start text, C, l, end text, start superscript, minus, end superscript) and organic anions
In most neurons, start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and organic anions (such as those found in proteins and amino acids) are present at higher concentrations inside the cell than outside. In contrast, start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, C, l, end text, start superscript, minus, end superscript are usually present at higher concentrations outside the cell. This means there are stable concentration gradients across the membrane for all of the most abundant ion types.
 

This diagram represents the relative concentrations of various ion types inside and outside of a neuron.
  • K+ is more concentrated inside than outside the cell.
  • Organic anions are more concentrated inside than outside the cell.
  • Cl- is more concentrated outside than inside the cell.
  • Na+ is more concentrated outside than inside the cell.

How ions cross the membrane

Because they are charged, ions can’t pass directly through the hydrophobic (“water-fearing”) lipid regions of the membrane. Instead, they have to use specialized channel proteins that provide a hydrophilic (“water-loving”) tunnel across the membrane. Some channels, known as leak channels, are open in resting neurons. Others are closed in resting neurons and only open in response to a signal.
 

Ion channels. The channels extend from one side of the plasma membrane to the other and have a tunnel through the middle. The tunnel allows ions to cross. One of the channels shown allows Na+ ions to cross and is a sodium channel. The other channel allows K+ ions to cross and is a potassium channel. The channels simply give a path for the ions across the membrane, allowing them to move down any electrochemical gradients that may exist. The channels do not actively move ions from one side to the other of the membrane.

Some ion channels are highly selective for one type of ion, but others let various kinds of ions pass through. Ion channels that mainly allow start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript to pass are called potassium channels, and ion channels that mainly allow start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript to pass are called sodium channels

In neurons, the resting membrane potential depends mainly on movement of start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript through potassium leak channels. Let’s see how this works.

What happens if only start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript can cross the membrane?

The membrane potential of a resting neuron is primarily determined by the movement of start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript ions across the membrane. So, let’s get a feeling for how the membrane potential works by seeing what would happen in a case where only start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript can cross the membrane.
We’ll start out with start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript at a higher concentration inside the cell than in the surrounding fluid, just as for a regular neuron. (Other ions are also present, including anions that counterbalance the positive charge on start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript, but they will not be able to cross the membrane in our example.)
 

Starting state:
Zero voltage across the membrane, as measured by a voltmeter with one electrode inside and one electrode outside the cell. The inside of the cell and the outside of the cell are separated by a membrane with potassium channels, which are initially closed. There is a higher concentration of potassium ions on the inside of the cell than on the outside. Each potassium ion (on either side of the membrane) is balanced by an anion, so the system as a whole is electrically neutral.
If potassium channels in the membrane open, start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript will begin to move down its concentration gradient and out of the cell. Every time a start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript ion leaves the cell, the cell’s interior loses a positive charge. Because of this, a slight excess of positive charge builds up on the outside of the cell membrane, and a slight excess of negative charge builds up on the inside. That is, the inside of the cell becomes negative relative to the outside, setting up a difference in electrical potential across the membrane.
 

System moving towards equilibrium:
If K+ can cross via channels, it will begin to move down its concentration gradient and out of the cell. (Channels are shown opening, potassium is shown moving from the interior to the exterior of the cell through channels.)
The movement of K+ ions down their concentration gradient creates a charge imbalance across the membrane. (The potassium ions that have crossed from the interior to the exterior of the cell are not partnered with anions on the outside of the cell. They line up along the membrane on the outside, and the unpartnered anions they left behind on the inside line up along the membrane on its inside face. The voltmeter now registers a slight negative voltage.)
The charge imbalance opposes the flow of K+ down the concentration gradient.
For ions (as for magnets), like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract. So, the establishment of the electrical potential difference across the membrane makes it harder for the remaining start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript ions to leave the cell. Positively charged start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript ions will be attracted to the free negative charges on the inside of the cell membrane and repelled by the positive charges on the outside, opposing their movement down the concentration gradient. The electrical and diffusional forces that influence movement of start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript across the membrane jointly form its electrochemical gradient (the gradient of potential energy that determines in which direction start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript will flow spontaneously).
Eventually, the electrical potential difference across the cell membrane builds up to a high enough level that the electrical force driving start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript back into the cell is equal to the chemical force driving start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript out of the cell. When the potential difference across the cell membrane reaches this point, there is no net movement of start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript in either direction, and the system is considered to be in equilibrium. Every time one start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript leaves the cell, another start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript will enter it.
 

At equilibrium:
At equilibrium, the concentration gradient of K+ is exactly balanced by the electrical potential difference across the membrane. Although K+ ions still cross the membrane via channels, there is no net movement of K+ from one side to the other. The voltmeter registers a negative membrane potential that is equal to the K+ equilibrium potential (for the K+ concentrations present in the cell and in the surrounding fluid).

The equilibrium potential

The electrical potential difference across the cell membrane that exactly balances the concentration gradient for an ion is known as the equilibrium potential. Because the system is in equilibrium, the membrane potential will tend to stay at the equilibrium potential. For a cell where there is only one permeant ionic species (only one type of ion that can cross the membrane), the resting membrane potential will equal the equilibrium potential for that ion.
The steeper the concentration gradient is, the larger the electrical potential that balances it has to be. You can get an intuitive feeling for this by imagining the ion concentrations on either side of the membrane as hills of different sizes and thinking of the equilibrium potential as the force you’d need to exert to keep a boulder from rolling down the slopes between them.
 

Left panel: Two compartments separated by a semi-permeable membrane, labeled A and B. There is a voltmeter between A and B. The ion of interest is much more concentrated in A than in B, and the voltmeter with electrodes in A and B registers a large negative voltage. The voltage is analogous to the force we would have to exert to keep a boulder from rolling from a very high place down a hill to a very low place.
Right panel: Same setup, but with A and B having a much slighter difference in concentration of the ion of interest (B slightly less concentrated than A). In this case, the voltage is only slightly negative. This is analogous to the case where we have a very high place and a slightly lower place and are exerting a force to keep a boulder from rolling down this not-very-steep hill.
If you know the start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript concentration on both sides of the cell membrane, then you can predict the size of the potassium equilibrium potential.

Does membrane potential equal start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript equilibrium potential?

In glial cells, which are the support cells of the nervous system, the resting membrane potential is equal to the start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript equilibrium potential.
In neurons, however, the resting membrane potential is close but not identical to the start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript equilibrium potential. Instead, under physiological conditions (conditions like those in the body), neuron resting membrane potentials are slightly less negative than the start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript equilibrium potential.
What does that mean? In a neuron, other types of ions besides start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript must contribute significantly to the resting membrane potential.

Both start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript contribute to resting potential in neurons

As it turns out, most resting neurons are permeable to start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, C, l, end text, start superscript, minus, end superscript as well as start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript. Permeability to start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript, in particular, is the main reason why the resting membrane potential is different from the potassium equilibrium potential.
Let’s go back to our model of a cell permeable to just one type of ion and imagine that start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript (rather than start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript) is the only ion that can cross the membrane. start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript is usually present at a much higher concentration outside of a cell than inside, so it will move down its concentration gradient into the cell, making the interior of the cell positive relative to the outside.
Because of this, the sodium equilibrium potential—the electrical potential difference across the cell membrane that exactly balances the start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript concentration gradient—will be positive. So, in a system where start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript is the only permeant ion, the membrane potential will be positive.
 

Starting state:
Zero voltage across the membrane, as measured by a voltmeter with one electrode inside and one electrode outside the cell. The inside of the cell has a low concentration of sodium ions, and the outside of the cell has a higher concentration of sodium ions. Each sodium ion is counterbalanced by an anion that is found on the same side of the membrane as the sodium ion. There are sodium channels in the membrane, but they are initially closed.
The channels open and Na+ can move through them.
At equilibrium:
The voltmeter now registers a positive voltage equal to the sodium equilibrium potential for this particular pair of sodium concentrations.. The Na+ ions have moved down their concentration gradient until their further movement is opposed by a countervailing electrical potential difference across the membrane. There are extra positive charges on the inside of the cell in the form of Na+ ions, and these Na+ ions line up along the membrane. On the opposite side of the membrane, there are extra anions (the former partners of the Na+ ions, which are unable to cross), which also line up at the membrane.
In a resting neuron, both start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript are permeant, or able to cross the membrane.
  • start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript will try to drag the membrane potential toward its (positive) equilibrium potential.
  • start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript will try to drag the membrane potential toward its (negative) equilibrium potential.
You can think of this as being like a tug-of-war. The real membrane potential will be in between the start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript equilibrium potential and the start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript equilibrium potential. However, it will be closer to the equilibrium potential of the ion type with higher permeability (the one that can more readily cross the membrane).

Opening and closing ion channels alters the membrane potential

In a neuron, the resting membrane potential is closer to the potassium equilibrium potential than it is to the sodium equilibrium potential. That’s because the resting membrane is much more permeable to start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript than to start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript.
  • If more potassium channels were to open up—making it even easier for start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript to cross the cell membrane—the membrane would hyperpolarize, getting even closer to the potassium equilibrium potential.
  • If, on the other hand, additional sodium channels were to open up—making it easier for start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript to cross the membrane—the cell membrane would depolarize toward the sodium equilibrium potential.
Changing the number of open ion channels provides a way to control the cell’s membrane potential and a great way to produce electrical signals. (We will see the opening and closing of channels again when we discuss action potentials.)

The start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscriptstart text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscriptpump maintains start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript gradients

The start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript concentration gradients across the membrane of the cell (and thus, the resting membrane potential) are maintained by the activity of a protein called the start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscriptstart text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript ATPase, often referred to as the sodium-potassium pump. If the start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscriptstart text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscriptpump is shut down, the start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript concentration gradients will dissipate, and so will the membrane potential.
Like the ion channels that allow start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript to cross the cell membrane, the start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscriptstart text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript pump is a membrane-spanning protein. Unlike potassium channels and sodium channels, however, the start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscriptstart text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript pump doesn’t just give start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript a way to move down their electrochemical gradients. Instead, it actively transports start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript against their electrochemical gradients.
The energy for this “uphill” movement comes from ATP hydrolysis (the splitting of ATP into ADP and inorganic phosphate). For every molecule of ATP that’s broke down, 3 start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript ions are moved from the inside to the outside of the cell, and 2 start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript ions are moved from the outside to the inside.
 

  1. Three sodium ions bind to the sodium-potassium pump, which is open to the interior of the cell.
  2. The pump hydrolyzes ATP, phosphorylating itself (attaching a phosphate group to itself) and releasing ATP. This phosphorylation event causes a shape change in the pump, in which it closes off on the inside of the cell and opens up to the exterior of the cell. The three sodium ions are released, and two potassium ions bind to the interior of the pump.
  3. The binding of the potassium ions triggers another shape change in the pump, which loses its phosphate group and returns to its inward-facing shape. The potassium ions are released into the interior of the cell, and the pump cycle can begin again.
_Image modified from “The sodium-potassium exchange pump,” by Blausen staff (CC BY 3.0)._
Because 3 start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript are exported for every 2 start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript brought into the cell, the pump makes a small direct contribution to the resting membrane potential (making it slightly more negative than it would otherwise be). The pump’s big contribution to the membrane potential, however, is indirect: It maintains steady start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript gradients, which give rise to the membrane potential as start text, N, a, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript and start text, K, end text, start superscript, plus, end superscript move down their respective concentration gradients through leak channels.

Sort by:

 

Want to join the conversation?

 
  • blobby green style avatar for user kakarorahahai
    Posted 4 years ago. Direct link to kakarorahahai’s post “please correct me if i am…”
     
    please correct me if i am wrong…this what i understood from this article:
    -we assume that initially there is electrical neutrality across the membrane.
    -then if channels are present they allow the movement of sodium and potassium ions and leads to the development of constant membrane potential.
    -now as the membrane potential is constant the charges leaving the cell must equal the charge entering .
    -na k pump maintains concentrations as some leakage of ions still take place.
    Answer kakarorahahai’s post “please correct me if i am…”
    Button opens signup modal

    Comment on kakarorahahai’s post “please correct me if i am…”
    Button opens signup modal
     

    (7 votes)

    Upvote

    Button opens signup modal

    Downvote

    Button opens signup modal
     
     

    Flag

    Button opens signup modal
    more
     
  • leafers seedling style avatar for user Pruthviraj Tarade
    Posted 6 years ago. Direct link to Pruthviraj Tarade’s post “do our physical movement…”
     
    do our physical movements affect ion exchange?
    Answer Pruthviraj Tarade’s post “do our physical movement…”
    Button opens signup modal

    Comment on Pruthviraj Tarade’s post “do our physical movement…”
     

    (9 votes)

    Upvote

    Button opens signup modal

    Downvote

    Button opens signup modal
     
     

    Flag

    Button opens signup modal
    more
     
    • duskpin ultimate style avatar for user Alexander
      Posted 6 years ago. Direct link to Alexander’s post “physical movement would c…”
       
      Good Answer
      physical movement would cause afferent sensory neurons to fire and yourself to notice that you are moving. Also moving itself would cause afferent neurons to send action potentials to the muscles, which affects the ion exchange.
      Comment on Alexander’s post “physical movement would c…”
      Button opens signup modal
       

      (10 votes)

      Upvote

      Button opens signup modal

      Downvote

      Button opens signup modal
       
       

      Flag

      Button opens signup modal
      more
       

  • blobby green style avatar for user celina v
    Posted 4 years ago. Direct link to celina v’s post “I understand the mechanis…”
     

    I understand the mechanisms, but what is the actual point in maintaining the concentration gradients?
    As the article states, if the sodium/potassium pump ceased to function, the concentration gradients would dissipate. If the whole purpose of the concentration gradients is to create an action potential, why can’t the membrane be non polar and then instead of depolarising the membrane at threshold, it would merely, polarise it? this would still create an action potential would it not? I don’t understand WHY there is a whole mechanism to maintain these gradients when an action potential could still be created if the membrane at rest was non polar.

    Is it because there wouldn’t really be an resting membrane potential? I.e the membrane would never truly be at rest because of the different permeabilities and equilibrium potentials of the ions? Therefore an action potential would not be able to be created.. But if there was Na+ constantly moving in and K+ constantly moving out, why would this not keep a constant membrane potential?

    Answer celina v’s post “I understand the mechanis…”
    Button opens signup modal

    Comment on celina v’s post “I understand the mechanis…”
    Button opens signup modal
     

    (5 votes)

    Upvote

    Button opens signup modal

    Downvote

    Button opens signup modal
     
     

    Flag

    Button opens signup modal
    more
     
    • orange juice squid orange style avatar for user Okapi
      Posted 4 years ago. Direct link to Okapi’s post “I think it is because it …”
       
      I think it is because it is easier and faster to depolarize the membrane than to polarize it. The sodium/potassium pump needs energy and time to clear the intracellular space from sodium, and I guess it would be quite ineffective to take this mechanism for impulse transfer.
      And what one might forget is that every cell has a concentration gradient! I even heard it as a definition of life, to have a specific concentration of ions which is not the same as the one surrounding the cell. This concentration gradient is important for metabolic processes, i.e. to build new molecules or to break them down, and for the osmosis – water always tries to equal concentration differences out by going towards the more salty regions. That is how we absorb water and why people can’t drink sea water, for example.
      So the resting potential is very important.

      Comment on Okapi’s post “I think it is because it …”
       

      (3 votes)

      Upvote

      Button opens signup modal

      Downvote

      Button opens signup modal
       
       

      Flag

      Button opens signup modal
      more
       
  • blobby green style avatar for user HUH AL
    Posted 4 years ago. Direct link to HUH AL’s post “Why Cl is not contributin…”
     
    Why Cl is not contributing much to the resting potential. More importantly, why the Cl does not move into the cell during action potential when the electrochemical gradient (charge and concentration) is in favor for Cl to move in?
    Answer HUH AL’s post “Why Cl is not contributin…”
    Button opens signup modal

    Comment on HUH AL’s post “Why Cl is not contributin…”
    Button opens signup modal
     

    (4 votes)

    Upvote

    Button opens signup modal

    Downvote

    Button opens signup modal
     
     

    Flag

    Button opens signup modal
    more
     
    • piceratops tree style avatar for user Jen
      Posted 4 years ago. Direct link to Jen’s post “The membrane is relativel…”
       
      The membrane is relatively impermeable to Cl-, yes, but Cl- influence is also reduced because its equilibrium potential is already close to the resting membrane potential (I believe Cl- equilibrium potential is around ~71mV)! Keep in mind the equilibrium potential of ions that the membrane is more permeable to has a greater impact on resting potential than that of ions the membrane is less permeable to. So even if permeability to Cl- increased, I’m fairly certain the value of the resting potential still wouldn’t be greatly affected. 🙂

      Comment on Jen’s post “The membrane is relativel…”
       

      (3 votes)

      Upvote

      Button opens signup modal

      Downvote

      Button opens signup modal
       
       

      Flag

      Button opens signup modal
      more
       

  • leaf green style avatar for user Shaine Galarce Sarmiento
    Posted 5 years ago. Direct link to Shaine Galarce Sarmiento’s post “Brief but detailed summar…”
     
    Brief but detailed summary of how resting membrane potential is generated
    Answer Shaine Galarce Sarmiento’s post “Brief but detailed summar…”
    Button opens signup modal

    Comment on Shaine Galarce Sarmiento’s post “Brief but detailed summar…”
    Button opens signup modal
     

    (2 votes)

    Upvote

    Button opens signup modal

    Downvote

    Button opens signup modal
     
     

    Flag

    Button opens signup modal
    more
     
    • blobby green style avatar for user student
      Posted 5 years ago. Direct link to student’s post “Resting membrane potentia…”
       
      Resting membrane potential is generated by the combination of sodium and potassium pump and the leak channels of these ions. The function of the pump is to take out three sodium from the cell and two potassium into the cell with the use of ATP (changes the shape of pump to release these ions), already with the stoichiometry difference, we see a charge difference. Furthermore, because it is more postive outside of the cell, and negative inside the cell, plasma membrane becomes more permeable to Potassium on our leak channels. Therefore, even with leak channels of both ions, potassium is more permeable. Causing a standard measurement of -70mV resting potential
      Comment on student’s post “Resting membrane potentia…”
      Button opens signup modal
       

      (6 votes)

      Upvote

      Button opens signup modal

      Downvote

      Button opens signup modal
       
       

      Flag

      Button opens signup modal
      more
       
  • blobby green style avatar for user menal kameel
    Posted 5 years ago. Direct link to menal kameel’s post “at resting membrane poten…”
     
    at resting membrane potenital do Na go in and K out? i cant understand resting membrane potential
    Answer menal kameel’s post “at resting membrane poten…”
    Button opens signup modal

    Comment on menal kameel’s post “at resting membrane poten…”
    Button opens signup modal
     

    (3 votes)

    Upvote

    Button opens signup modal

    Downvote

    Button opens signup modal
     
     

    Flag

    Button opens signup modal
    more
     
    • blobby green style avatar for user vedant vani
      Posted 4 years ago. Direct link to vedant vani’s post “Resting membrane potentia…”
       
      Resting membrane potential of a neuron is about -70mV which means that the inside of the neuron is 70mV less than the outside. There are more k and less NA+ inside and more NA+ and less K+ outside. It is because the cell membrane is selectively permeable which means that is allows some substances to come in while restricting the others. The cell membrane is selectively more permeable to K than Na and hence there are more k inside than the outside, and hence outside is more positive then the inside.
      Comment on vedant vani’s post “Resting membrane potentia…”
      Button opens signup modal
       

      (2 votes)

      Upvote

      Button opens signup modal

      Downvote

      Button opens signup modal
       
       

      Flag

      Button opens signup modal
      more
       
  • blobby green style avatar for user Emed1
    Posted 4 years ago. Direct link to Emed1’s post “Why is Chloride’s membran…”
     
    Why is Chloride’s membrane potential negative despite having a higher extracellular concentration?
    Answer Emed1’s post “Why is Chloride’s membran…”
    Button opens signup modal

    Comment on Emed1’s post “Why is Chloride’s membran…”
    Button opens signup modal
     

    (3 votes)

    Upvote

    Button opens signup modal

    Downvote

    Button opens signup modal
     
     

    Flag

    Button opens signup modal
    more
     
    • winston baby style avatar for user Ivana - Science trainee
      Posted 3 years ago. Direct link to Ivana – Science trainee’s post “IT is true, Cl- ions are …”
       

      IT is true, Cl- ions are more concentrated on the outside than on the inside.

      I can answer why is intracellular more negative – due to differences in Na/K plus die to exist negatively charged proteins in the cell.

      Comment on Ivana – Science trainee’s post “IT is true, Cl- ions are …”
      Button opens signup modal
       

      (1 vote)

      Upvote

      Button opens signup modal

      Downvote

      Button opens signup modal
       
       

      Flag

      Button opens signup modal
      more
       
  • blobby green style avatar for user Dilayaykan
    Posted 6 years ago. Direct link to Dilayaykan’s post “what happens when the con…”
     
    what happens when the concentration of Na is increased in the extracellular fluid, is there a depolarization or hyperpolarization?
    And the same goes for the increased concentration of K in the extracellular fluid, is there a depolarization or hyperpolarization?
    Answer Dilayaykan’s post “what happens when the con…”
    Button opens signup modal

    Comment on Dilayaykan’s post “what happens when the con…”
     

    (2 votes)

    Upvote

    Button opens signup modal

    Downvote

    Button opens signup modal
     
     

    Flag

    Button opens signup modal
    more
     
    • leafers tree style avatar for user James
      Posted 5 years ago. Direct link to James’s post “When Na is increased in t…”
       
      When Na is increased in the ECF it will not have any major affect on the cell, a negligible depolarization if even measurable because the higher outside gradient will help push the Na into the cell (but remember that it isn’t very permeable so it’s minute).
      K will have a bigger effect because the extra ECF will decrease the internal leakage of K from ICF to ECF because there would be a higher gradient outside now. The end result would be in depolarizing the cell, how much would depend on how much K was added to the ECF.

      Comment on James’s post “When Na is increased in t…”
       

      (4 votes)

      Upvote

      Button opens signup modal

      Downvote

      Button opens signup modal
       
       

      Flag

      Button opens signup modal
      more
       

  • blobby green style avatar for user Nullie James
    Posted 2 years ago. Direct link to Nullie James’s post “in what ways is the Na+/K…”
     
    in what ways is the Na+/K+ pump different from the K+ channel
    Answer Nullie James’s post “in what ways is the Na+/K…”
    Button opens signup modal

    Comment on Nullie James’s post “in what ways is the Na+/K…”
    Button opens signup modal
     

    (2 votes)

    Upvote

    Button opens signup modal

    Downvote

    Button opens signup modal
     
     

    Flag

    Button opens signup modal
    more
     
  • male robot donald style avatar for user Qasim Hashmi
    Posted 3 years ago. Direct link to Qasim Hashmi’s post “why do the potassium and …”
     
    why do the potassium and the sodium become ions?
    Answer Qasim Hashmi’s post “why do the potassium and …”
    Button opens signup modal

    Comment on Qasim Hashmi’s post “why do the potassium and …”
    Button opens signup modal
     

    (2 votes)

    Upvote

    Button opens signup modal

    Downvote

    Button opens signup modal
     
     

    Flag

    Button opens signup modal
    more
     
    • winston baby style avatar for user Ivana - Science trainee
      Posted 3 years ago. Direct link to Ivana – Science trainee’s post “First, defintion of an io…”
       

      First, defintion of an ion:
      ‘an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.’
      https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/ion

      So, we have ions in our cells and extracellular matrix.
      Since redox reactions happen in our body, as a consequence we have ions.

      Which is more important, because our nervous sysem relies on transmitting neural signal (electrical current) we have to create that electrical field somehow – that’s why we have ions.

      Now, the change in concentration inside and outsid eof cell helps creating resting emmbrane potential, depolarization, repolarization and generating action potential (that’s how signal is porpagated).

      Action potential jumps from Ranvier node to another and that way is faster conducted until it reaches synapse or final destination – where it is transmitted into sensation (in our brain) or into some action (efferent pathways).

      Something as complicated as sensing that truck is runnign towards you while you are crossing the road (sorry if my example is morbid) all relies on little Na and K ions. And channels for Na and K as well. All down to the level of atoms and molecules (Biology cannot exist without Chemistry or Physics).